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Visión de futuro

versão impressa ISSN 1668-8708versão On-line ISSN 1669-7634

Vis. futuro vol.20 no.2 Miguel Lanus dez. 2016


The Human Resource management as a key Element and quality Competitiveness Organizacional

(*) Montoya Agudelo, César Alveiro; (**) Boyero Saavedra, Martín Ramiro

(*)Facultad de Cs. Ec., Administrativas y Afines
Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia
Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia

(**) Escuela de Administración. Fundación Universitaria CEIPA - Institución Universitaria Escolme
Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia

Reception Date: 01/18/2016 – Approval Date: 02/15/2016


This reflection paper aims to highlight some important notes that revolve around the value representing the human resources in the organization and its foundation as an essential element for the strategic direction. Through a document review methodology, addressing the issues, planning, quality, participation and teamwork of (HR) Human Resources as determining organizational success factors will be examined.
The need for the organization to be oriented towards a more ambitious vision of HR, linking as key elements of the strategic direction for organizational success is concluded. The staff is the key factor in the resilience of the organization and the consolidation of a competitive advantage, hence the future of that depends on achieving an appropriate and committed capital. Finally the need to consolidate tools propitiate the quality of processes, products and services in a quality system, so that the organization is supported from the paradigms of continuous improvement and total quality as dimensions that guarantee its viability.

KEYWORDS: Personnel management; Human resource management; Personnel management; labor sociology; Quality Management.


Human resources are the key element for competitive advantage and therefore it constitutes an essential component for any type of institution. This common element is the great differentiator which makes for competitiveness since this must be demonstrated, should be measured and should be compared (Gonzalez, 2005) and the organizations it can be measured either services or products offered to customers, as has expressed González be competitive is to be productive and be profitable this because competitiveness is the prize that the market as a judge gives decisions and actions carried out in organizations, which is reflected in the achieving established goals.
Today the challenge, which is faced by leaders of organizations is based, inter alia, in the direction of its human resources towards a strategy for achieving effectiveness and efficiency in order to achieve high standards of performance work based on added value and a noticeable competitive advantage. It is important to note that when the organization does things right, there are big profits unlike those that do not.
There is no doubt that in the organization who manages the management and compliance with both goals as the established objectives, is the human resource and they are the strategic factor of the company (Ortíz et al., 2012). While companies have large financial resources for the implementation of its activities, with the latest technology or buildings that meet international standards, for them these are not sufficient unless they have competent for execution of such financial resources staff to the application of technological tools tip or occupation of property, with the possible consequence of the lack of customers and the existence of poor services to meet their needs, as well as failure to meet the objectives and organizational goals.
Importantly, human resources constitutes a fundamental element that gives validity and use other resources, in this sense the organization personnel can develop skills and competencies that will allow you the competitive advantage of the company can be sustained and maintained over time, thus enabling it to speak of building an inimitable, unique and competitive in corporate human resources.
Today organizations require staff with ability to interpret the desires of its customers, making a transformation of services, to improve and innovate as a primary commitment to the community, regardless of organizational type and the place where you are immersed . The main objective of this document is to present a way of thinking and methodology document under review, some relevant notes that revolve around the value representing the human resource in the organization and its foundation as an essential element for the strategic direction. The specific objectives is to determine the role of strategic direction with respect to a new consideration of HR, establish how HR should be trained and empowered to realize their potential towards the organization, support the role of HR the consolidation of system quality management in the organization and development s ability to adapt to the demands of the environment, finally argue the need for human capital capable and committed part, teamwork and be evaluated for ensure organizational success.
Initially this was part of a conceptual consideration about this and its role in relation to human resources in the organization, rescuing some key elements for its management; then the role of system planning and human resource management as mechanisms that enhance organizational performance and are critical in quality management is clarified. Finally, issues such as the participation of people, teamwork and HR performance evaluation as complementary elements that contribute to achieving competitiveness and the achievement of the objectives of the organization are rescued.


Strategic Human Resources Management in the organization

The address is referenced both the set of policies, and the measures that are based on achievement of the structure of human resources to work towards achieving the goals and mission of the organization, thanks to the skills they have each one of its members, since it is they who make it can be increasingly competitive.
For Herrera Gómez management of human resources constitutes a "set of activities and specific measures to operate the area and have a direct effect on behavior, attitudes and abilities of persons within the organizational scheme" (2001, p. 48), for which it could then be said that the management of the organization should focus its efforts on achieving the goals and targets set at a certain time, jointly and in line with staff. We must remember that understanding the strategies need value added processes and people, pretending to be in line with current and fundamental currents today consider human resources as a strategic factor for development and competitiveness.
One aspect to note is that all corporate director should not only ensure that all processes and procedures within the organization are carried out within the parameters of effectiveness and efficiency, but must build and carry out actions, strategies and policies that are based in simple and clear models that should be shared with all members of the organization. That is why it is necessary that incorporate the human factor in the value chain as a key element of corporate mission and strategic processes, which will be evidenced by the contribution and singular presence in the service and production quality. It is then necessary that the company consider some elements that are essential to speak of a correct addressing human resource as shown in the following figure:

Figure 1: Addressing Human Resource
Source: Illustration made from text (Castillo, 1993, p.191)

Organizations are highly efficient and competitive when they achieve defined strategies against human resources are fully aligned with the strategies defined by management; the consistency of these two aspects implies that the processes executed by the human resource ensure proper procurement, timely, effective and full of value of all the goals of the organization.

Elements for the strategic direction of human resource management in the organization

As already stated above, human resources constitutes the essential element for achieving the objectives of the organization, which is why the corporation can have an excellent strategic direction of human if management:

  • There is consistency between the strategies for staff development and competitiveness with the strategic direction proposed by management of the company.

  • There is full support by the members of the organization both in the application and development of strategies.

  • All staff of the company seizes the strategic vision in its development and projection, as this will contribute to the remarkable achievement of competencies and aggregation of significant value in improving and achieving the expected results in the organization.

  • A system of reliable, updated and consistent with the technological needs of the company information, making decisions is logical and is characterized by assertiveness.

  • There are permanent changes aimed at achieving the objectives proposed value-added, which show results through indicators and where there is a strong positive impact on the actions of everyday life in the organization.

  • There are large permanent staff skills that is part of the organization.

Planning of human resources in the organization

In this regard, García-Tenorio states that human resource planning "is the ability of an organization to efficiently manage supply and demand for personnel" (2007, p. 85) in meeting objectives as:

  • Ensuring that the organization has available the right staff with the right to occupy the right places at the right times skills.

  • Ensure that the company can adapt to the changing environment as the context in which you are immersed.

  • Making sense and coherence both systems and the activities of all personnel working in the company.

  • Unification of the perspectives of managers who are both at the intermediate level and the staff of the corporation.

Thus it is how companies can try to anticipate future staffing needs, ensuring the number of employees needed in the right place taking into account the description of the charges, in order to meet the given profile by performing the right activities (Montoya, 2013). However, the planning of human resources in the enterprise can be analyzed from two essential aspects: aggregate planning and career planning. The goal of aggregate planning is based on developing both estimates of supply and demand of personnel to the future, by which can be implemented programs that enable the effective administration of the members of the organization in each of the areas company, in compliance with the requirements of each position in which they are applied in a timely manner the necessary measures to this end (Montoya, 2013). According to García-Tenorio "it is necessary for planners staff try to identify external factors that affect the organization and calculate the impact of such changes on strategic human resource planning." (2007, p. 164).
Now, with the objective of planning careers, it is based on string together harmoniously and controlled purposes employees who, according to Gonzalez, is "the dreams of the people, their desire to grow way and getting away the organizational structure, according to their abilities "(2005, p. 47), through motivational processes that encourage professional advancement and overcoming the expectation of training. In general, it can be said that planning career is a responsibility of every employee because each sets its own goals, build their dreams, makes managing your training, progress in the level of their skills and articulation with the company, thus obtaining better performance (Werther et al., 2014).

System planning and human resource management

The involvement of human resources in the development of strategic processes is essential to establish objectives and strategies to achieve. It is important to remember that for the development of a strategic process, necessarily it must start with a clear definition of the mission of the organization, that is its raison d'etre. It is important to note that the mission must be known and understood by each of the partners, with the purpose that every action or activity carried out by the staff is directed towards the fulfillment of the objectives and mission proposed by the company.
Similarly, it should be noted that thanks to the management of human resources in strategic processes, can ensure good management and development of staff skills in line with the objectives to be achieved. It should be noted that not only the area of ​​human management is who contributes to the achievement of corporate strategies, it is then necessary to have an active participation in the formulation of these strategies throughout the company, since the value of people is known and identified by those who administer and manage constantly (Dolan, 2003).
Has already established the importance of human resource of the organization and participation in the formulation of strategies it has established to achieve all the objectives to be achieved, however it is important also to consider some elements to allow establish a real and full exercise of value in all actions to be developed in the company:

  • Formulate clear objectives for a specified period.

  • The defined objectives should be related to the raison d'etre of the organization.

  • The vision and analysis of various external aspects should influence steadily in the corporation.

  • Creativity in the proposal and the development of actions to ensure their achievement must exist.

  • Should be proposed actions that lead to decisions that address different environmental uncertainties of the company.

  • Good control will detect any deviations with respect to the objectives, with the purpose of evaluating and eliminating those deviations progressively.

  • The administrative staff to formulate strategies must have a thorough knowledge of each of the processes and procedures that are performed in the company (Cuesta Santos, 2010).

Human resources as a key factor for quality management in the organization

One thing to keep in mind is that technological development is no guarantee of the quality of services provided in the organization, undoubtedly because the machine can never replace the possibility of man to interact with each other. This development is only a support, it is the man who with his unlimited potential has every possibility to implement this technology, generating intelligence and talent great resources for the company.
Today one could say that the administration is accompanied by important values, where both customers and suppliers and employees it play a leading role in success, this being an important element for a new concept of company that is supported by the value of the relationship and integration of all members that compose (Benavides, et al., 2014).
With this new concept of inclusive organization, the recognition of the human factor as a constituent element of corporate success becomes feasible. Meanwhile, Milena Liliana Toro holds that:

"In the organization, is the human talent, knowledge, experience, attitudes, behavior contributed by the people, particularly with these relate to other human beings, with their own objectives and the environment, which It is the source of competitive advantage for the company and makes the difference between one company and another " (2008, p. 31).

It could be said then that in such a modern conception of the company, it will look at the need to satisfy aspects such as:

  • Need to make investment efforts in supporting these providers to develop, improve their processes and procedures, reduce costs and have an organizational integration.

  • Need to invite customers, suppliers and partners to have an active participation through their opinions, contributing ideas and suggestions for optimizing resources.

  • Need to make an address effort to raise awareness and train employees so that their attitudes and behaviors are integrated into the common goal of the organization: continuous improvement and quality, survival and the joint development of the individual and the company (Montoya, 2013).

However, as discussed Koontz and others when an organization receives a prize of quality, it is because she has understood the value representing the count on a good performance, allowing it to be more competitive. In this vein, the authors state that organizations get a quality award that have responded are seven categories, as presented in the figure below:

Figure 2: Elements to reward quality
Source: Illustration made from text (Koontz et al, 2012, p.88)

Incidence of the human factor in quality

Today it can be established that the competitive advantage of the organization is measured in aspects such as participation, motivation, knowledge, skills and abilities that can have your staff every day about having a performance that is aimed at achieving of the proposed objectives and that makes the organization tick difference with respect to the other.
The development of human factor demand actions which are aimed at improving the conditions under which the work favoring the alignment of the worker with the company, so that there is a satisfaction of their needs within it, is played by creating a complete psychological state in which people feel comfortable and satisfied in the environment in which it operates.
Please note that a poor selection of personnel, poor training and a lack of motivation, become grounds for limitation to achieving high levels of quality and productivity in the human factor in the organization (Gonzalez, 2015).
The performance of human resources results in:

  • The exercise, understood as the result of the sum of the expertise of the employees of the information unit, plus the motivation that the staff of the company.

  • The expertise constitutes the result of adding training with experimentation.

  • Motivation is the summation of the attitude of staff and environmental conditions.

This is the basis of a proper recruitment, selection, induction, training, monitoring and assistance both psychological and social, as well as monitoring of organizational climate, potential analysis, evaluation of performance, labor welfare and retirement assisted work (Gonzalez, 2015).

Integrating elements of staff management quality

To implement a quality system and its support in the organization, it must count on each member that is part of it. To start this process is necessary for a diagnosis to see and analyze what the company is doing in accordance with the rules that are to be implemented is made, since it is more likely that inadvertently meets many of the requirements the rules simply because seeks quality and possibly some of its services have already been accepted by customers due to the quality they find in them.
This diagnosis should include an analysis of the labor climate, culture that takes in the organization, address this, motivation and participation of all staff in corporate projects. Similarly, this diagnosis will allow the company to have a vision and control of the land on which it will pay the seed quality to make an analysis of the way it will motivate and prepare the organization in the creation , implementation and maintenance of the quality system.
Now, for the implementation of quality as a management system, it is necessary that people are prepared to participate in projects that the company has an excellent communication system that executives and managers have extensive knowledge and make use of current techniques of leadership and empowerment; that staff are motivated and that the work environment is propitious. It is important to note that the company must prepare people for the quality and for continuous improvement, since they must have sensitivity training, establishment and control of corporate objectives to achieve attitudinal change necessary and begin implementation of ISO (Montoya, 2007) standards.
Both processes awareness training as will enable the organization to have a great understanding of that quality does, it is not controlled. One aspect to note is that quality people make when they understand that they are part of an institution in which they are important. The quality must emerge as a principle of justice, ie it is not fair that the organization someone have to hold to fix things wrong done by others, because quality requires preparation and is not an imposition, but she born of a team. The satisfaction of internal and external customers is not an obligation but an action is needed to ensure the future of the job and the same company (Largacha et al., 2014).
It is necessary then that companies bear in mind that latent need to train their employees to work on the quality of the processes to achieve quality management, services and the same people. Similarly, it is important that training schemes are developed in quality and continuous improvement that are accompanied by the development of the company and of the same quality system since the training allows "managers do not lose sight of the goals and strategies of the organization and has to guide the training based on these" (Snell, 2013, p.293).

Staff participation in quality management

It is essential to keep in mind that the overall quality is essential that all members of the company are committed to continuous improvement and work, it is necessary to bear in mind that we must prevent all defects that may be within the processes to produce quality. Similarly, employees should be aware of do things right from the start and be responsible for the quality of their own work, with the objective perfection and improvement in each of the actions developed in the company.
Now, both implementation and maintenance of the quality system in the company must have from the outset with the participation of all the people who are part of it and have to work equally by the integration of all processes, the firm intention to ensure that there is success in the quality of service and products offered to customers.
The full participation of all members of the organization must seek a committed workforce, motivated, creative, aligned with the goals set in the company and has to recognize that it is necessary to achieve that quality awareness is created through the concept work and organizational culture.
The company seeking to implement and maintain a quality system in operation must work under the following pillars:

Figure 3: Pillars of work for the implementation and maintenance of a quality system
Source: Own Elaboration

According to the above figure, it has to:

1. Quality awareness: is a Japanese philosophy that emphasizes accountability and efficiency of staff performance; which can be presented to all members with the firm intention that they can identify the value representing the quality. For total quality is important to note that should be dormant the desire to do things right the first time, or failing that, try to have zero defects in processes and procedures, which entails that there is a staff awareness and a commitment to work.

2. Male quality: this is a self-critical, mature and comprehensive in all spheres of life be as it has in mind the idea of quality and habit of continuous improvement.

About Zapata (2008) states that man has the characteristic quality:

"Maturity: allowing you to have self-knowledge and thus can identify their mistakes, learn from them and deal with their difficulties.
Self-criticism: because this is an internal control mechanism that allows you to evaluate, assess, manage and adjust their actions.
Integrity: it allows for feedback to the demands and needs which is subjected to self-criticism and maturity necessary, and in turn requires commitment and consistency between their thinking and acting" (p. 24).

3. Work quality: work constitutes one of the fundamental activities of human existence. It is the activity that allows men to produce essential goods and services necessary for life, integrating the system of relationships that is society. Through efficient and productive work, companies are improving the quality of organizational and social life, and through it, men find the necessary personal, family and social life satisfaction.

4. Quality Culture: This is a paradigm of total quality and such, for an organizational culture, must be conscious and vital expression of the idea of ​​quality and habit of continuous improvement. A quality culture is interested in developing behaviors and attitudes motivated to serve and to give satisfaction to others effectively, efficiently and productively. According to Fernandez Garcia (2010), the essence of quality culture is summed up in seven characteristics:

  • "Individual Autonomy. The degree of responsibility, independence and opportunity that people have in the organization to exercise initiative.
  • Structure. The set of standards, norms and rules, and the intensity of direct supervision of management.
  • Support for. The degree of support and warmth that show managers to subordinates.
  • Identity. The extent to which members identify with the organization as a whole rather than with your group or field of work” (p. 90).
  • “Performance Reward. The extent to which the distribution of awards to staff based on criteria relating to worker performance.
  • Conflict tolerance. The present level of peer relationships and working groups conflict and the willingness to be honest and open to differences.
  • Risk Tolerance. The degree to which stimulated (encouraged) workers to be aggressive, innovative and to take risks" (Fernández García, 2010, p. 90)

Team work

Today is a fact that to ensure the quality of services and contribute to the operation of a quality system within the organization, it must promote teamwork, strengthening their employees their ability and willingness to work on this, if you want is to get participation, integration and collaboration of each and every one of the people in quality management.
It is a fact that the most significant benefits in quality usually get the equipment; groups of individuals who join talent and experience they have developed working at different stages of the process. So we can say that teamwork:

  • Encourage the search for better ideas and increases the commitment to implement them.

  • Generates identification of people with principles, values and interests of the organization and the priority of collective over individual goals.

  • Generates collaboration, trust and solidarity between the partners of the company.

  • Develop functional skills.

  • Facilitates the delegation of authority and autonomy.

  • Eliminate unnecessary controls, reducing rework and corrections.

  • Facilitates training methodologies and techniques for improving quality and productivity.

  • Eliminate barriers and promotes cross-functional feedback and stands between the people managing different disciplines.

  • It allows the improvement in the quality of work and service.

  • Create an environment conducive to developing creativity and initiative climate.

  • Increased motivation and job and personal satisfaction.

  • Facilitates learning and information exchange.

  • Develop the potential and talent of its members.

  • Increase participation levels of employees within the company.

Teamwork constitutes the basis for the organization meets all the objectives, however it must be remembered that it is also a fact that in many organizations people still do not work in group; each member contributes what he can, take precedence personal interests and individual desire to excel. People are not prepared for teamwork, to depose their individual interests and make way for the joint interests to work in a synergy that allows the end result of the work is greater than the sum of the contributions of each member of equipment. Today people need to be motivated and empowered to work together and to achieve strengthen the functioning of the system of organizational quality.
A team be constituted within each area, department and corporate unit as a highly organized social entity; able to draw a common task made possible by the adoption and exchange of roles among its members, according to previously defined within a climate of respect and trust procedures. Within the company, teamwork is to give the possibility to create a relationship of interaction and collaboration among its members, that translates into mutual acceptance and shared responsibility for their actions (Gonzalez, 2015).

Businesses today have to conduct a training plan that allows employees to develop own skills of teamwork such as: communicate, collaborate, understand and think of others, and must sensitize employees to work in teams requires at all levels of the company that people base their relationships on trust and mutual support, spontaneous communication, understanding and identification with corporate goals (Montoya, 2013).
To achieve the active participation of workers in quality management, it has to promote a training program aimed at developing the necessary skills to work in teams, such as:

  • The skills to solve problems and make decisions: since the teams have to have the ability to identify problems and opportunities, evaluate options and then make the decision on how to proceed.

  • Interpersonal skills: as the common understanding and purpose can not be developed, they are effective communication and constructive discussion which facilitate interpersonal skills. This includes knowing take risks, take constructive criticism, objectivity, ability to listen, granting the benefit of the doubt, providing support, recognize the interests and achievements of others

  • The technical and functional complementary skills: the knowledge and skills needed to fully understand the process as a group, its mission, vision and specific tasks (Montoya, 2007).

Performance evaluation of human resources

Within the organization, the degree of efficiency and effectiveness with which run charges determines productivity, operating costs, benefits, company image, competitiveness and compliance with the institutional mission.
Efficiency, effectiveness and quality company official require you to have an overview of the organization as a whole and be knowledgeable of personal support he performs through its functions as a constituent, interdependent and interacting element of the company; have knowledge of the macro and micro view of their role in the company, within their area and work team to act by understanding the meaning of their action; because when the ultimate goal and the organizational and personal mission is unknown, the action of the worker is limited only to the fulfillment of a task, without a focus of concern or projection of their work.
The performance evaluation must be a tool through which the actual performance of each employee with the expected return and from which personnel decisions related to compensation are taken you compare, promotion and corrective action (Cuesta , 2010). As such it must be a tool that has an impact on employee motivation, allowing assessment of the actual performance of the person in the workplace and compliance given to the objectives proposed by its area and position, allowing also identify aspects that should improve and clarify the development potential to leverage on each employee, since

"Measuring business or organizational performance is to measure (evaluate) the capacity. Regional accurate, that organizational capacity that blends is evaluated, it is stressed, the individual results, group and organization itself. [...] To understand the results or both individual performance and group (brigade, workshop area, department, etc.) and the organization as a whole (where strategic objectives are" (Cuesta and Valencia, 2014, p. 29).

However, the performance evaluation should be a strategy that serves to detect problems in personnel management, the integration of the employee to the organization or position held, as well as in the non-utilization of employees with higher potential the required for the position (Montoya, 2009). It must also allow detecting the level of motivation, problems of selection, communication and working conditions in general; has to integrate a philosophy of continuous improvement and invite acquire the inescapable commitment to adopt an attitude of change, by reviewing the work behavior of staff of the organization, based on the premise that: be pretty good is not enough and it may be better.
The performance evaluation must be a tool to:

  • To promote continuous improvement and development of staff.

  • Find guidelines for training.

  • Confirm the presence of skills and knowledge workers.

  • To strengthen the identity of workers with the aims of their area of work, the division to which he belongs and the organization as a whole.

  • Contribute to the strengthening of a human quality profile.

  • Establish corrective with its plan of improvement in the short, medium and long term.


Today in business two major challenges experienced: the present that should meet the needs of survival according to the mission or purpose and the future, which is related to the desire to grow and to fulfill its vision from a more ambitious consideration of HR in the organization. Now, what is sought with the design of strategies and human resource planning is to enable the organization to achieve become or remain a business model that responds to the new demands of the market and customers.
Arguably the organizational future depends not only on their financial capacity, but its ability to generate changes in its structure, processes, services and technologies among other aspects, always with the qualified and committed staff to help meet the new demands.
Undoubtedly, organizations can achieve sustainable competitive advantage through their employees, where the directives of the institution must take an active role in strategic planning and decision-making, recognizing the same manner as the company every day it will be better if you have the ability to recognize the management of employees.
ISO standards become an organizational strategy that focuses on quality of processes, products and services; they must be accompanied by a quality management system that generates relationships of integration, participation and commitment to all members of the organization to achieve quality, based on paradigms of management as continuous improvement and total quality.
In the process of implementation, operation and maintenance of a quality system, people become the protagonists of organizational success and quality obtained in processes, products and services. They need to be motivated and prepared to be actively involved in the change required all quality system that will be implemented in the company.
The challenge for the leadership of the organization raises the quality system is to contribute to the development of human quality of the institution; to strengthen a culture of quality to enter, socialize, attract, motivate, develop, potencialice and retain quality people, for through them strengthen and ensure quality system in force.
To support the successful implementation of the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards, should provide training and education to members of the organization. It is to educate people not only to accept the ideas of change or improvement, but to participate and commit it and change their attitudes under human quality itself. It must provide the conditions for individuals to get empower their work autonomously, learn to lead projects, to cooperate and collaborate in the processes of the organization and make improvements through teamwork and process performance evaluation.


Please refer to articles Spanish Biographical abstract.


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