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Visión de futuro

versão impressa ISSN 1668-8708versão On-line ISSN 1669-7634

Vis. futuro vol.22 no.2 Miguel Lanus jul. 2018


Artesanal type Clothing: Challenges and Opportunities in its Commercialization

(*) Cindy Mireya Ramón Rodríguez; (**) Yannet Paz Calderón; (***)Martin Reyes García; (****) Mónica Teresa Espinosa Espíndola

(*) Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Oaxaca, México

(**) Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades
Oaxaca, México

(***) Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades
Oaxaca, México

(****) Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades
Oaxaca, México

Reception Date: 02/14/2017 - Approval Date: 06/12/2018


The sector dedicated to the commercialization of artisanal clothing has faced new opportunities for growth caused by cultural dissemination, incursion of the design and increase in fashion, which has given rise to the emergence of new companies dedicated to the offer of these products, however, in some cases within this economic units there is an ignorance in administrative knowledge which represent a disadvantage to face a competitive market. The present investigation has as objective to make a study of the conditions of the supply of clothes of artisan type in La Heroica Ciudad de Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca, México for this purpose were interviewed marketers artisanal clothing type business owners, the information collected was about the attention to the customer, the variety of products, and marketing, based on this it was able to identify that businesses have different areas of opportunity, that can boost sales of companies that marketed artisanal clothing type in this city.

KEY WORDS: Artisanal Clothing; Commercialization; Offer; Customer Service; Variety of Products.


Mexico has the characteristic of being a country that has different cultural traditions developed by the diversity that exists of peoples and ethnic groups throughout the national territory, thus creating an endless gallery of handicrafts representative of each region (Cruz et al., 2009).
Handicrafts in Mexico are made from ancestral times, these objects reflect the identity and culture of the people of the country. While its use was initially ceremonial or ornamental, with the passage of time and due to the commercial impulse, that has been given to this sector, the purchase and sale of these items play an important role in the economic activities of various communities of Mexico (Urbano et al., 2018; Sales, 2013). In the southeast region of the country the State of Oaxaca is located, which stands out for its culture full of customs and traditions, which materialize in a myriad of craft products. This situation has allowed the commercialization by producers of this type of items inside and outside the State. In the State, the artisanal sector is an invaluable part of the identity of citizens, which has given rise to the development of companies and businesses that profit from this market. In addition, since the State is a cultural heritage of humanity1, it is a tourist destination par excellence, which represents a driving factor for the development of this productive sector.
According to data from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (NISG), in 2011 Oaxaca had 58,398 artisan workers, assistants and industrialists, who have benefited due to the existence of a regional center that is a point of commercialization of the National Foundation for the Promotion of Handicrafts (NFPH) (Center for Social Studies and Public Opinion, 2012).
Within the great diversity that exists of handicrafts in the country, is the artisan clothing that is a direct reflection of the dedication, originality, creativity and skills of the knowledge of Mexican artisans, so that its commercialization allows to transmit the cultural heritage and identity of the roots of the people. Over time the inspiration of the craftsmen has led to new lines of clothing that due to their design and tailoring characteristics cannot be considered as handicrafts properly, for this reason in this research the concept of clothing of type had to be built artisanal to identify garments with characteristics that combine the cultural with the modern.
However, strategies are required that allow them to sell their products in a better way, which could improve customer service, create adequate publicity, administrative training, improve the appearance of their businesses, among others (COPLADE, 2016).
The present work has as objective to know and analyze the conditions that the offer of handcrafted clothes has in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca, Mexico, to later make some suggestions that are guidelines that support the owners of the stores that They market these garments to improve their presence in the market.
The present article begins with the definition of the concepts and the theories that support the development of the investigation. The terms of artisan clothing and artisanal clothes are defined, making clear the differences between each one, the concepts that sustain the field work are developed, in which it was sought to obtain information regarding customer service, variety of product and marketing, this from the perspective of the bidders. Subsequently, the methodology used is described, which includes the stages followed during the investigation, taking into account the design of the instrument, collection of information and the analysis thereof by means of an inductive-deductive method. Then the findings derived from the analysis are presented, as well as the discussion of them and some suggestions which are made regarding the areas of opportunity that these businesses have, and that they can develop to increase their sales, finally the conclusions are presented.


Artisan clothing

FONART (2015) states that due to the existing ambiguity between the products called handicrafts and handicrafts it was initially sought to clarify the differences through definitions, later the categories and branches of handicrafts and handicrafts were analyzed, as well as each one of the elements that make them up. In this way, the following definitions were obtained:
Crafts: Object or product of community cultural identity, made by continuous manual processes with use of basic raw material transformed generally from the region where the artisan lives (FONART, 2015).
Handicraft: Unlike handicrafts, they are products that do not have an identity of community cultural tradition, are lost in time and are manufactured with processed or prefabricated raw materials. Contrary to the craft tradition, crafts are governed in the present times (FONART, 2015).
Hybrids: They are products that preserve identity characteristics and combine traits of cultural dynamism and globalization, have a mixture of elements from handicrafts and handicrafts, in some cases these products can be configured as craft tradition (FONART, 2015).
Given the above and considering that there is no specific definition of artisanal clothing, but taking into account that the process of creating any type of clothing carries in a greater or lesser amount a manual manipulation and a particular stamp by the designer, it can be defined therefore the artisan clothing as: one that has symbolic characteristics of the culture from which it emerges, embracing techniques of embroidery, fabrics, patterns and sewing methods that have been inherited and that have a historical and significant background of the region to which they belong.
These garments transmit invaluable information of customs and traditions that are a reflection of indigenous cultures. Artisan clothing, describes garments of classic cuts and often basic, the variation in design is minimal, this in order not to manipulate the forms of the garments so that consumers continue to identify them as cultural symbols.
However, there are currently in this sector, various artisan producers who have created new designs inspired by traditional garments, making use of embroidery, materials and colors typical of artisan clothing, which transforms these products into hybrids, with the purpose of reaching new markets. In this way and in the absence of a concept that defines the modern clothing that is located in the artisanal sector, it was necessary to construct a definition that refers to the different variants that currently exist in the design and manufacture of garments inspired by the artisan2 clothes. Thus, the concept used in this research is defined as follows:
Artisan Clothing: It is one that has the characteristics of a hybrid product between crafts and craftsmanship, since it has symbolic features of cultural identity and at the same time aspects that modernize these garments to new trends.
In relation to the above, handmade clothing is not limited to the inherited patterns, much less to the techniques or materials of handcrafted clothing but is adapted to the present and the new creative suggestions of fashion design without leaving aside the inspiration derived from the cultural heritage.

Central aspects in the commercialization of handmade clothing

a) Customer service. Many companies give a greater focus to the administrative area, leaving customer service in the background, however, it is precisely this activity that makes it more likely that a business will be successful, especially in the current situation (Najul, 2011).
Customer service or customer service is "an activity developed by organizations oriented to satisfy the needs of their customers, thus increasing their productivity and being competitive. The client is the protagonist and the most important factor in the business game" (Najul, 2011, p. 25).
This activity is related to the human resource of a company, being the responsibility of the business owner the correct training and continuous monitoring to improve the relationship of customers with the company. One of the most important aspects to achieve competitiveness is to identify possible errors in the customer service system. Companies must be prepared to adapt to changes that may arise in the market, such as in the social and political environment.
According to Najul (2011) one of the main objectives of entrepreneurs is to understand and have adequate knowledge about their customers, this to ensure that their products can be adjusted to their needs; Quality with respect to service is also one of the general purposes of all members of the business, which can be achieved through continuous training, where the personnel in charge of dealing with the client have high self-esteem and the ability to take risks. and achieve balance with consumers.
This gives a general idea of ​​the relevance of customer service, which means a direct interaction with consumers and allowing the creation of links that allow the loyalty of those who have chosen a business with respect to its competitors. The points that were investigated in relation to customer service were the following:

  • Customer preferences

  • Customer needs

  • Customer complaints

b) Variety of products. Martínez (2005) mentions that a product can be differentiated if its substitutes have common characteristics. Consumers have two general preferences: variety and quality, according to the study of this author, a greater part of consumers buy low quality products, while a few prefer high quality products, however, this must be studied with Regarding income, there are clients who despite having a low-income demand high quality product even if they are in smaller quantities.
On the other hand, each product can have a fixed set of attributes that make customers prefer them over others, so consumers buy different goods in order to obtain the best combination of products.
The variety of products influences the purchase decision of the clients, because through a greater quantity of goods they can more easily identify the characteristics they are looking for in order to better satisfy their needs. The points that were inquired about the variety of products were:

  • Types of clothing offered

  • Prices

  • Place of origin of the garments

c) Marketing. Marketing is translated as the act of planning and organizing a set of necessary activities that allow you to put, in the right place and at the right time, a merchandise or service so that customers who make up the market know and consume it. If it refers to a product, it is to find for it the presentation and packaging likely to interest future buyers, the most appropriate network of distribution and the conditions of sale that will have to energize distributors on each channel (García 2007, quoted by Díaz 2004).
This activity encompasses the actions channeled to the sale of products and services, carried out by organizations or companies, is the process to get a product or service to the plaintiffs.
Based on what was previously defined, the topics explored around artisanal marketing were the following:

  • Offer of additional services: Size adjustment, shipping, items

  • Importance of the appearance of the business

  • How they deliver their products

  • Use of advertising or promotions

  • Use of website

  • Use of business card

  • Testers

Spatial context of study

In the Mixteca Region of the State of Oaxaca the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León is located, which for 20093 had 53,043 inhabitants. Men represent 47.1% and women 52.9% of the total population of the municipality, 50% of the inhabitants are 24 years old or less, and 56.1% of people aged 15 and over have basic level of schooling (NISG, 2011). In the city there are 4,688 economic units, representing 3.2% of the total of the State (NISG, 2009), tertiary activities predominate, which generate 90% of jobs, in the secondary and primary sector the occupation increases to 8% and 1% respectively (Pacheco, 2013).
In the particular case of the companies that offer handmade clothing, in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León, there are thirteen economic units dedicated exclusively to commercialization, some of these businesses offer garments mostly from different parts of the State of Oaxaca. Among the products that sell are handmade clothing and traditional garments such as huipiles, dresses, istmeñas blouses, tehuana suits, shirts and accessories such as jewelry, bags and palm products, these businesses are mainly focused on the ladies4 market.

Research instruments

In this research the qualitative method was used, the design is correlational / causal transactional, which according to Barquisimieto (2013), aims to describe relationships between two or more variables at a given time, it is descriptions, relationships between variables. The nature of this research work is exploratory because it is a subject that had not been studied in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León before.
An interview guide was prepared for the collection of information related to the supply of handcrafted clothing in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León. Next, the topics that were included in the interview guide applied to owners of artisan clothing stores are described below:

• General Data: The owners were asked about the year of creation, number of employees, business goals.
• Customer service: We inquired about the additional services they offer.
• Variety of products: The opinion of the entrepreneurs about their products with respect to those of the competition was investigated.
• Marketing: We investigated the knowledge they have about the needs of their clients and also about aspects that are related to a better shopping experience for customers.

Choice of study subjects

The total number of shops selling handcrafted clothing located in the first square in the center of the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León are thirteen, which were located through a route, since no government agency has a record of them. The total number of interviews conducted between November 7 and December 2, 2016 was eight, in the following stores: Popular Art Museum, Tierra Mía Crafts, Yosaán, Marilú (two branches), La Fiesta, Mezcalería Progreso, Land of Sun and Judge. In the other businesses the owners did not agree to give the interviews. In addition, two of the stores have branches, but when making the tour it was not possible to be aware of it because the premises are not labeled.


Classification of handmade clothing

Through the observation and interviews conducted with the owners of the stores in the city, it was possible to classify the artisanal clothing that they commercialize, according to the characteristics in the design and the materials used in its elaboration, in three groups:

1. Garments of daily use: Blouses, gowns, skirts or dresses with embroideries or simple fabrics, most of them possess the basic designs of the handmade garments; the prices of these garments are lower compared to those of more elaborate designs, the materials that are used to make them are cotton fabrics, especially the blanket, which makes them very comfortable and cool garments (see Figure No. 1).

Figure No 1: Example of everyday garments, blanket blouses and cross embroidery, made by Nahua artisans
Source: FONART (2014, pp.35-36)

2. Elegant garments: Includes those garments that are elaborated through processes that require more effort and time by those who create them, such as the huipiles made with loom, the huipiles completely embroidered by hand or machine, the suits of tehuana, stylized garments with istmeños embroidery and guayaberas among others. The materials used to make these garments include cotton fabrics as well as those fabrics that have polyester in their composition. Generally, this type of garments is created with better finishes, which reflects a better quality in its preparation, therefore, the prices are a little higher compared to the other classifications (see Figure No. 2).

Figure No 2: Example of elegant garments, embroidered silk women's costume, elaborated by huaves craftsmen (left), huipil made in waist loom and hand embroidered by Mixtec artisans (right)
Source: FONART (2014, p.38)

3. Garments for school or dance events: within this classification are the blouses used for Mixteco syrup, blanket blouses, chiffon, with simple embroidery made by hand or machine, similar to everyday garments, however, these they are acquired by people who use them to perform some artistic or cultural activity.

General characteristics of the artisan clothing business in the Heroic City of Huajuapan the León

Around 71.4% of the businesses are family-owned, while 28.6% are groups of associated artisans who sell garments made by themselves and also those acquired with suppliers. Most of the owners of the businesses (85.7%) mentioned that they have the future goal of growing, on the other hand, 71.4% do not have employees inside their stores and finally 28.5% of the Businesses have been in the market for 1 to 20 years. About the volume of sales, the owners could not give an average number of weekly sales, because they said that the quantity is very variable, being the high seasons the months of May, June and July.

Customer Support

Only 29% of the businesses have managed to know the complaints of their customers, however, this last has been through the initiative of the same consumers, except for a business where the owner mentioned that sporadically she asked the customers if the service was adequate. 43% of the businesses claimed to have a customer register, although they mentioned that it was very informal with the most frequent customers. And finally, 71% claimed to know the needs of their consumers, but this has only been by observation.

Variety of products

All the businesses offer garments of daily use. According to the owners, these are the garments that are sold the most because the price is more accessible. The owners agreed that the second type of clothing that sells the most are the garments for school or dance events that schools and academies use for their artistic activities. Finally, there are the elegant garments, whose prices are higher than the two types of garments mentioned above and therefore are the ones that take longer to be sold. 43% of the stores offer only one type of clothing (daily use), 29% of the establishments have both types of garment available to customers (daily and elegant use). The other 29% of the businesses market the three types of garments (everyday use, elegant and for school or dance events), which is a factor that allows them to cover more market and have a more complete offer.
About the characteristics of the garments, it was found out about their origin: all the stores offer clothing from different regions of the State of Oaxaca, 43% mentioned that, in addition, they offer products from other States of the Republic, among which are Chiapas and Yucatan.
There are also two stores that offer clothing made by people from the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León. One of these stores sells garments with designs that have been created taking as reference the Mixtec codices (historical documents typical of the culture of the region) and the Mixteco syrup (folkloric dance representative of the Mixteca region of Oaxaca), these characteristics give it a unique and original distinction.


About 86% of the businesses have the services of return of goods and systems of section. Only in 29% of the cases the owners of the stores own the premises, which means an advantage for them in comparison with the rest of the establishments that must pay an income. Although the rental of the establishments must be considered within the total expenses of the company regardless of whether the payment is made or not, in the case of those who own the properties, they have an advantage, since they can do without that disbursement.
Around 71% of the establishments have testers, however, the space for customers to try their clothes is not properly conditioned, in some cases they have used the bathroom as a substitute for the tester. It was found that in two businesses where the owners own the premises, they mentioned that they did not have the service of testers, the argument given by one of them was that it avoided the risk that the garments were mistreated by the clients at the time of proving it. another mentioned that there was not enough space.
Moreover, 71% of the owners consider the appearance of the establishment as something important. The same percentage of businesses has made use of advertising and promotions. With regard to advertising, this has consisted in the delivery of flyers that have been made only once at the start of the business or gifts at the end of the year to exclusive clients, that is, most of these activities have not been followed up nor have they been carried out with an adequate knowledge base. Therefore, this is an area of ​​opportunity for companies.
Only in two of the businesses interviewed has received some type of advice related to business administration or marketing, a situation that allows us to state that most of the establishments (71%) have run their store empirically.
Also, 86% of the stores have the option to order their garment suppliers with designs or specific colors, this represents an advantage for these businesses if the satisfaction of the clients is considered as the main priority, however, for some of the owners, despite having this benefit, they rely on their own tastes to stock their products before inquiring about the preferences of the customers they already have and what they could reach.
Regarding the use of the Internet, only 29% of businesses have a page on their company's social networks, it was noted that in these cases there is a young person who supports the administration of the store. In one of these establishments the owner mentioned that the page is in charge of only one person, however, they do not give the necessary follow-up.
Only 29% of the businesses have a special packaging for the delivery of their products, the lack of this attribute added to the lack of a sign with the name of the business causes that people cannot identify stores by the name that possess Only two stores have the card payment service, some businessmen mentioned that this service generates costs and therefore they do not have it for their clients, but they have realized in recent years that more and more customers are requesting Payment through this means.
In each of the sections that were examined, it was found that business owners have different characteristics related to marketing that can be used as strategies to boost their sales, but they are not taking advantage of them properly.
An example of the above is that 71% of the owners said that haggling is a problem. The bargaining agreement with the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) is defined as debating the price of something put up for sale, this situation instead of being taken as a disadvantage can be used in favor of the business, taking advantage of the taste of the people to negotiate prices.

Areas of opportunity to improve the commercialization of artisanal clothing

The recommended activities for the commercial businesses of clothes of artisan type in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León are the following:

a) Customer service:

  • Improve customer relations: This point is crucial to create consumer loyalty; In order to improve this aspect it is important to know the opinion of the people about the service that is provided, so communication will be the best way to achieve it. The above can be achieved, through the application of surveys or interviews with customers after each purchase, to know the complaints and suggestions that people may have about what is sold in the business and the service they received.

  • Implementation of after-sales services: In the retail business of artisanal clothes, the service

The after-sales is focused on the following points:

1. Give security to the customer by offering changes, returns and guarantees of the garments.
2. Offer garment adjustment.
3. Offer promotions, discounts or gift cards for frequent customers.
The above gives the opportunity for customers to feel confident that the company is responsible for the products it sells even though these have already been purchased by consumers, also allowing consumers to feel valued.

  • Improvement in the knowledge of the garments that are offered: It is important that when dealing with a client the staff is able to explain from which region the garments come, the way they have been elaborated, the approximate time for its creation, the types of embroidery and materials that are used as well as what those garments represent in the place from which they come, all this information allows clients to have a broader picture of the value that the clothes and so they are willing to pay the price that has been set for the garments.

b) Variety of products:

  • More variety and improvement in the quality of the products: The owners can take advantage of the opportunity they have to ask for specific designs from their suppliers and experiment with the different items that they can include in their offer. What is sought is that companies can highlight certain aspects of the garments that can be identified to customers to cause preference by them. In addition, it must be borne in mind that these companies have the advantage of being relatively close to the capital of the state (172.8 km.) Where there are many producers of handmade clothing, which may represent a benefit for business owners. because it would allow them to diversify their offer.

  • Improve garment finishes: It is about choosing or requesting garments from suppliers that have quality finishes, which means that hidden, reinforced, impeccable seams are used with threads of the same color as the fabrics.

In some cases, the embroidered garments are very presentable on the outside, however, on the inside there are untrimmed threads or knots that can become uncomfortable when using clothes, so it is recommended to check inside, making sure that does not have imperfections.

  • Include garments with better materials: As in the previous activity, it is recommended that the business owners choose or request garments with quality fabrics.

c) Marketing:

  • Advertising: The variety in the products would not be useful unless it is communicated to the consumer; This is achieved through advertising, which serves to inform customers what is being offered in the business, in order to increase consumption by demand. Advertising allows us to disclose the name of the business, the differentiation of products and the image they handle (Rubín, 2017).

  • Implement pages in social networks: The recommendation is that businesses have a well-structured web page, however, if this is not possible due to cost, there are efficient alternatives such as social networks, which are one of the main tools of advertising in the digital era in which we live, are practical, easy to use and allow a much greater scope with respect to conventional advertising.

Social networks not only allow to promote the products, they also give the opportunity to make sales remotely, for which is recommended to provide a service number where orders can be placed, as well as to specify to customers each of the characteristics of the garments, such as measurements or sizes, so that consumers have a clear idea of ​​what they are requesting.
The owners must commit to carry out the shipment in an appropriate manner, ensuring that the garments can arrive in time and form in the hands of consumers. It is important to point out that, if you plan to venture into this area, it requires a commitment to be on top of the page, give quick and clear responses to people and keep track of, updating with products that are in store.

  • Improve the presentation with which the products are delivered: The names of the businesses in the packaging or in the labels outside of the businesses are forms of competition, since it allows the customers to perceive that the quality is greater and therefore, they are willing to pay a higher price.

Keeping the way, the products reach customers' hands is considered another relevant point, the mere fact that the names of the stores are in the bags that are used to deliver the garments can be enough for consumers to keep in mind the business that is their preference.

  • Improve presentation and arrangement of garments within the business: The owners can

The best way in which they have their garments organized, can be by regions, by design, by type of garment or by size, the important thing is that in view of the consumers there is an order and it is easy for them to search among the different garments, it must also be for those who attend to the business, having a clear idea about the places where each product is located, so that the attention can be fast. Garments piled up or poorly distributed can cause customers to lose the courage to look for what they need.
The mannequins are very helpful to show customers the way in which the garments are put, so that making use of these is an advantage for business, it must be taken into account that it is necessary to change regularly the garments that are presented and it is also recommended not to make excessive adjustments in the clothes put on the mannequin, since this changes excessively the way in which the clothes are seen at the moment of being used and can generate erroneous expectations among the consumers.
Finally, it is recommended that the owners Be informed about the fashion trends of each season, as it will allow them to know the colors that are being most demanded and thus show items that meet that feature. Although, it is understood that most handcrafted items are not the same as conventional fashion garments, at least in terms of colors or shapes, you can take advantage of the trends.


Craft-type clothing is a good that It has an added value, due to the cultural identity feature that can be identified in the design of the clothing. In addition to this, sales benefit the producers and the place where these garments emerge. In the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León, these businesses face a lack of administrative knowledge that predominates in most of these economic units, which causes them not to be able to respond to the demands of their market and threats from their environment (Pacheco, 2013), for these reasons the need to design a proposal that drives the sales of these companies was identified.
This research gives evidence that it is necessary that in the State and particularly in the city, the potential of the commercialization of the handmade clothes. In the contemporary world, the process of marketing the products must be accompanied by information that allows the consumer to locate the products within the different categories and classifications that exist, speaking of artisanal clothing and, as has already been said , it is not valued with regard to its cultural content, when selling it, emphasis should be placed on the materials and methods used in its elaboration, highlighting its artisan content is essential to improve its level of competitiveness compared to other types of garments. It is imperative that the companies that commercialize this type of clothing develop a new business culture that seeks to adapt to the changing demands of the market, it is well known that the one that adapts, survives. This applies to all types and sizes of companies, due to the fact that competition is becoming stronger in all productive sectors.
Identifying the characteristics of the artisan clothing offer can help, on the one hand, to design marketing strategies, since understanding the behavior of competitors and customers, will allow identifying areas of opportunity for companies; and on the other, to local and regional government authorities, this information is useful for the design of public policy proposals that will be translated into sectoral strategy plans.
Finally, it should be emphasized that another important contribution of this work is the construction of the concept of handmade clothing, which was necessary to define due to the transformation that has taken place in the production processes of the garments that, although It has its artisanal and cultural base, they have been modified with modern features, in the production and use of materials. In addition, the classification and definition of the type of garments that are located within the term of handcrafted clothing were carried out, which are those that are commercialized in the stores of the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León.


1. The UNESCO World Heritage List is a legacy of monuments and sites of great natural and cultural wealth that belong to all of humanity. The sites inscribed on the World Heritage List serve as symbols of the awareness of States and peoples about the meaning of those places and emblems of their attachment to collective property, as well as the transmission of that heritage to future generations. In 1987 the Historical Center of Oaxaca and the archaeological zone of Monte Albán were named world cultural assets and in 2010 the prehistoric caves of Yagul and Mitla in the Central Valleys were also recognized within this category (UNESCO, 1997).

2. It is worth mentioning that after making an observation in the different establishments that sell handcrafted clothes, and that were the object of study of this investigation, it was determined that they sell garments with these characteristics that combine the traditional with the modern.

3. More recent information that is based on the Population and Housing Census (INEG1, 2009).

4. Information recovered in a first field visit to the business selling handicrafts in the Heroic City of Huajuapan de León in March 2016.


Please refer to articles Spanish Biographical abstract.


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