versión On-line ISSN 1851-2372
Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. v.40 n.1-2 Córdoba ene./jul. 2005
Laura E. Lorenzo1 And María Inés Messuti1,2
1 Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche, Universidad. Nacional del Comahue, Quintral 1250, R8400 RFR, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina. firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador, CONICET.
Summary: The genus Glyphium, represented by G. elatum (Ascomycota) is recorded for the first time among the mycobiota of Argentina. Prior to this finding, this species was known in southern South America from southern Chile only. The new record extends its geographic range to the temperate-humid forests in the Andean-Patagonian regions of Argentina. Glyphium elatum is described and illustrated.
Key words: Glyphium; Chaetothyriomycetes; Genera incertae sedis; Ascomycota, Patagonia.
Resumen: Glyphium elatum (Ascomycota) en Patagonia (Argentina). El género Glyphium (Ascomycota) representado por G. elatum, se cita por primera vez para la micobiota de la Argentina. Hasta la fecha, en el sur de Sudamérica, la especie había sido registrada en el sur de Chile solamente. Esta cita extiende su distribución geográfica a la región de los bosques húmedos andino-patagónicos de la Argentina. Glyphium elatum es descripta e ilustrada.
Palabras clave: Glyphium; Chaetothyriomycetes; Genera incertae sedis; Ascomycota; Patagonia.
In the course of systematic and biodiversity studies of Patagonian Ascomycetes, members with ascomata termed hysterothecia were studied (Messuti & Lorenzo, 1997; Lorenzo & Messuti, 1998; Messuti & Lorenzo, 2003).
The genus Glyphium Nitschke ex F. Lehm. (Ascomycota) is characterized by the hysteriaceous ascomata erect to ligulate, with a long lateral slit; asci long cylindrical-filiform, eight-spored; ascospores hyaline to light brown, filiform, with obtuse ends, multiseptate, sometimes fragmenting into several-celled partspores, in a fascicle and often spirally wound (or spiralling) in the ascus. Anamorph hyphomycetous, Peyronelia-type (Sutton, 1970; Barr, 1990). The genus includes 4 or 5 species (Kirk et al., 2001) with a world wide distribution. They are all corticolous or lignicolous on angiosperms (Zogg, 1962; Barr, 1990).
The genus Glyphium was placed in the Lophiaceae by Zogg (1962), and later in the Mytilinidiaceae by Eriksson (1981). The genera Lophium and Mytilinidion have been considered closely related to Glyphium. Nevertheless morphologically the later genus is quite distinct with its characteristic hysterothecia with a subiculum (Eriksson et al., 2002). Lindemuth et al. (2001) studied the relationships of Glyphium including phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences. They found that G. elatum (Grev.: Fr.) Zogg clustered with members of Chaetothyriomycetes. It is necessary more molecular data for information whether any of the genera Lophium and Mytilinidion should be transferred with Glyphium to Chaetothyriomycetes; in the meanwhile they are incertae sedis.
The first studies of Glyphium proceed from Europe (Zogg, 1962). Nevertheless, this genus is also mentioned from studies in Africa, Canada, India, Pakistan, Russia, Taiwan, United States of North America, and Venezuela (Zogg, 1962; Goree, 1974; Barr, 1990; Chen & Hsieh, 1996; Vasilyeva, 2001; Farr et al., 2003). In the southern part of South America, the genus, represented by G. elatum (Grev.: Fr.) Zogg (Goree, 1974), has previously only been recorded from Punta Arenas, Chile. The genus, again represented by G. elatum, is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The species is described, illustrated and some comments of its distribution are given.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Specimens were collected during a survey of Ascomycetes from Patagonia, Argentina. A single collection from southern Chile was borrowed from FH. The Argentine material was deposited in BCRU. The material was examined following the usual methodology for studying fungi (Hawksworth, 1974).
Glyphium elatum (Grev.: Fr.) Zogg, Beitr. Kryptogamenflora Schweiz 11(3): 99. 1962. (Fig. 1 A-F) = Lophium elatum Grev.: Fr., Elenchus fungorum 2: 113. 1828.
Fig. 1. A-F: Glyphium elatum (from BCRU 825). A. Ascoma in frontal view. B. Ascoma in lateral view. C. Cross section of ascoma. D. Fasciculate and twisted ascospores inside the asci. E. Ascospores extruded from an ascus. F. Details of an ascospore. Bars: A, B = 1 mm; C = 0.25 mm; D, E = 10 µm., F = 20 µm.
= Lophium dolabriforme Wallr., Flora cryptogam. germ. 2: 433. 1833.
= Glyphium dolabriforme (Wallr.) Nitschke ex Lehm., Nova Acta Kais. Leop.-Carol. Deutsch. Akad. Nat. 50(2): 139. 1886.
= Acrospermum fultum Harkn., Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 47. 1884.
Ascomata superficial to semiimmersed, erect, seated upright in subiculum, scattered or gregarious, ligulate to dolabriform, bivalve shell-like, ascoma wall carbonaceous, shiny black, surface transversally striate, 0.65-1.38 mm high, 0.25-0.55 mm wide, 0.08-0.31 mm in side view, apex compressed, and opening by a long slit. Subiculum present, tufts of hyphae growing down from the base anchoring to substrate. Asci bitunicate, 8-spored, long cylindrical-filiform, mostly long stipitate, 334- 493 x 6.0-8.2 µm. Paraphysoids numerous, branched, anastomosing, septate. Ascospores filiform, tapering towards the obtuse ends, yellowish, multipseptate, septa 3.2- 8.9 µm apart, constricted or not at the septa, fasciculate, spirally wound, not separating into partspores in the ascus, 230-628 x 1.62-2.43 µm. Anamorph not seen.
Habitat: Mostly on bark and wood of angiosperms. In the studied area the species was found on descomposed wood of Nothofagus spp.
Known distribution: Russia, Taiwan, Europe, Canada, United States of North America, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile (Riddle, 1920; Zogg, 1962; Goree, 1974; Barr, 1990; Chen & Hsieh, 1996; Vasilyeva, 2001; Farr et al., 2003).
Material examined: ARGENTINA, Prov. Neuquén, Dpto. de los Lagos: Puerto Blest, path to Cascada Los Cántaros, humid forest of Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue), 28-X-1994, Gamundí 825 (BCRU); Lago Espejo, on decorticated wood, Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) forest, 4-V-1995, Lorenzo 826 (BCRU); Lago Nahuel Huapi, Brazo Machete, on decorticated branch, 20-IV-1998, Havrylenko 4418 (BCRU); Lago Espejo Chico, on small branches of Nothofagus antarctica (ñire), 27-IV-2001, Lorenzo 4419 (BCRU). CHILE, Prov. Magallanes, Punta Arenas, II.-1906, Thaxter 5681 (FH).
Notes: This Cosmopolitan species has previously been recorded from southern South America, Chile, as Lophium dolabriforme (Thaxther 5681, FH). A direct comparison between the Argentine and the single Chilean specimens was not possible because the latter was in very bad condition. The FH specimen was first cited by Riddle (1920) in his publication of taxonomical studies of the genus Acrospermun and was subsequently revised by Goree (1974).
In Argentina, in the Andean-Patagonian region, Glyphium elatum has a restricted distribution within the temperate-humid forests dominated by the evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (coihue) and the deciduous N. antarctica (G. Forst.) Oerst. (ñire).
Comparing bibliographic data (Goree, 1974; Barr, 1990; Zogg, 1962; Chen & Hsieh, 1996) and our observations, the asci and ascospores of the South American material are, on average, longer than those in Asian, European and North American collections, althought the measurments do overlap.
We would like to thank the curator of FH for loan of material and the reviewers for constructive criticism and comments on the manuscript. Funds for this research were provided by Secretaría de Investigación, Universidad Nacional del Comahue (Grant B090).
BARR, M. E. 1990. Melanommatales (Loculoascomycetes). North American Flora 2: 1-190. [ Links ]
CHEN, C. Y. & W. H. HSIEH. 1996. Two new species and some new records of Ascomycetes from Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 37: 219-227. [ Links ]
FARR, D. F., A. Y. ROSSMAN, M. E. PALM & E. B. MCCRAY. 2003. Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, from http:// nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/ [ Links ]
ERIKSSON, O. 1981. The families of bitunicate ascomycetes. Opera Botanica 60: 1-220. [ Links ]
ERIKSSON, O. E., H. O. BARAL, R. S. CURRAH, K. HANSEN, C. P. KURTZMAN, T. LAESSØE & G. RAMBOLD (eds.). 2002. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos. 3303-3579. Myconet 8: 1-54. [ Links ]
GOREE, H. 1974. Glyphium in Western Canada and United States. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 1265-1269. [ Links ]
HAWKSWORTH, D. L. 1974. Mycologist´s Handbook. Commonwealth Mycol. Inst. Kew, London. [ Links ]
KIRK, P. M., P. F. CANNON, J. C DAVID & J. A. STALPERS. 2001. Ainsworth and Bisby´s Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th ed. International Mycological Institute, CABI, Egham. [ Links ]
LINDEMUTH, R., N. WIRTZ & H. T. LUMBSCH. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences supports the view that loculoascomycetes (Ascomycota) are not monophyletic. Mycol. Res. 103: 1176-1181. [ Links ]
LORENZO, L. E. & M. I. MESSUTI. 1998. Noteworthy Hysteriaceae from southern South America. Mycol. Res. 102: 1101-1107. [ Links ]
MESSUTI, M. I. & L. E. LORENZO. 1997. A new species of Hysterium from Patagonia, Argentina. Mycol. Res. 101: 302-304. [ Links ]
MESSUTI, M. I. & L. E. LORENZO. 2003. Notes on the genus Hysterographium (Ascomycota) in southern South America. Nova Hedwigia 76: 451-458. [ Links ]
RIDDLE, L. W. 1920. Observations on the genus Acrospermum. Mycologia 12: 175-181. [ Links ]
SUTTON, B. C. 1970. Glyphium leptothecium (Earle) comb. nov., G. schizosporum (Maire) Zogg, and their imperfect states. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 54: 255- 264. [ Links ]
VASILYEVA, L.N. 2001. Hysteriaceous fungi in the Russian Far East IV. Mikrologiya i fitopatologija 35: 15-18. [ Links ]
ZOGG, H. 1962. Die Hysteriaceae s. str. und Lophiaceae unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der mitteleuropäischen Formen. Beit. Kryptogamenfl. Schweiz 11: 1-190. [ Links ]
Recibido el 17 de Noviembre de 2003
Aceptado el 29 de Julio de 2004.