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Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica

On-line version ISSN 1851-2372

Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. vol.49 no.4 Córdoba Dec. 2014



Fruiting material of Philonotis esquelensis (Bartramiaceae, Bryophyta) discovered in Chile


María S. Jimenez1,2, Guillermo M. Suárez1,3 y María M. Schiavone3

1 Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). e-mail:
2 Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste, Sgto. Cabral 2131, C.C. 209, Corrientes, Argentina
3 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e I.M.L., Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.


Philonotis esquelensis, a species described from Argentina, is recorded for the first time for Chile. In this work the sporophyte is described and illustrated, amending the original description. SEM of spores, capsule, and peristome are here made. A distribution map of the species in southern South America is presented.

Key words: Capsule; Peristome; Setae; Spores; Sporophyte.


Material fructificado de Philonotis esquelensis (Bartramiaceae, Bryophyta) descubierto en Chile. Philonotis esquelensis, una especie descrita para la Argentina, es registrada por primera vez para Chile. En el presente trabajo se describe e ilustra el esporofito, completando así su diagnosis original. MEB de esporas, cápsula y peristoma son aquí realizados. Se presenta un mapa de la distribución de la especie en el sur de América del Sur.

Palabras clave: Cápsula; Esporas; Esporofito; Peristoma; Seta.



Philonotis Brid. is a genus marked by its small size; leaves variously erect to appressed but never sheating, non plicate at base; capsules ovoid to subglobose, rugose to strongly furrowed when dry; peristome absent, rudimentary or fully developed, and sub-reniform spores (Allen, 1999). It inhabits rocks or soil, usually associated with wet sites such as stream banks or seeps, from near sea level to 4700 m (Gradstein et al., 2001).
As part of the project "Biosystematics and phylogeny of the genus Philonotis (Bartramiaceae, Bryophyta) in southern South America" some specimens collected in Chile were identified as Philonotis esquelensis Matteri, a species no previously recorded from this country (see Table 1). The species was described based on male plants from Esquel (Chubut Province, Argentina) collected by O. Kühnemann in 1940 (Matteri, 1968). The original description included only gametophytic characters; however, the material found in Chile contains fertile plants which grow forming an almost pure dense turf.

Table 1. List of species from Philonotis recorded in Chile, updated names, and additional references.

A detailed description and illustration of P. esquelensis and its sporophytes, including SEM of spores, capsule, and peristome are here presented. This work represents an amended description of the species, and also includes a map of its distribution in southern South America.

Materials and Methods

We studied types and specimens from BA, CONC, and LIL, in addition to our own collections deposited in CTES and LIL (Thiers, 2013).
The specimens were studied morphologically with conventional techniques for bryophytes and mounted in water-glycerine-phenol or Hoyer's solution (Anderson, 1954).
Microscopic characters were analyzed by using light microscopy (LM) Leica Model CME, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) JEOL 5800 LV operating at 20 KV. Characters illustrated by SEM were obtained from samples fixed in FAA, critical-point dried, and then mounted on double-sided tape and coated with gold-palladium.


Philonotis esquelensis Matteri. Revista Museo Argent. Ci. Nat. Bernardino Rivadavia Instituto Nac. Investigación Ci. Nat., Bot. 3: 211. 1968. TYPE: ARGENTINA. Chubut: Esquel, 28/ XI/1940, O. Kühnemann 5165 (Holotype: BA!; Isotype: LIL!). Figs. 1-5.

Fig. 1.
Philonotis esquelensis. A: Axillary hairs. B: Habit. C: Capsule. D: Cryptopore stomata. E: Leaves. F: Detail of apical laminal cells. G: Median laminal cells. H: Basal laminal cells. I: Transverse section of the costa below mid-leaf. J: Transverse section of the stem. Scales: B: 0,2 cm. C: 1 mm. A: 5 µm. D-J: 50 µm (Larraín 26624, CONC).

Fig. 2.
Philonotis esquelensis. SEM. A: Capsule. B: Peristome. C: Operculum. D: Exostome teeth. E: Exostome apex. F: Exostome base. Scales: A-B: 50 µm. C-E: 10 µm (Matteri 327, BA).

Fig. 3.
Philonotis esquelensis. SEM. A: Inner surface of the exostome. B: Detail of the exostome and cilia. C: Endostome. D: Distal view of the spore. E: Proximal view. F: Spore ornamentation (Matteri 327, BA).

Fig. 4.
Philonotis esquelensis. A: Leaf. B: Apical laminal cells in adaxial surface. C: Basal laminal cells. D: Apical laminal cells in abaxial surface. E: Median laminal cell. F: Basal laminal cell (Larraín 32067, LIL).

Fig. 5.
Philonotis esquelensis. A: Peristome. B: Exostome and endostome in detail. C: Spore in optical view. D: Equatorial view. E: Spore ornamentation. Scales: A-B: 50 µm. C-D-E: 10 µm (Matteri 379, BA).

Plants small to medium size, green to yellowish-green, growing in dense turfs. Stem red, tomentose below, branched in subfloral whorls, 0.7-2.1 cm long, transverse section rounded, hyalodermis present, sclerodermis in 2 rows; central strand present. Rhizoids smooth to densely rugose. Axillary hairs 2-cells, basal cell short and brown, apical cell hyaline, globose to subglobose, 15-39 µm long. Leaves erect when dry, erect-spreading when wet, sometimes secund, ovate-lanceolate; 0.4-1.2 × 0.2-0.4 mm, apex acuminate; margin serrulate in the upper half by projecting cells papillae, dentate in the lower half, recurved in upper 2/3 of lamina; costa robust and well-defined, 33.2-81.34 µm wide, excurrent to long-excurrent; in cross-section at mid-leaf elliptic, 6-7 guide cells in one layer, ventral stereids in 1-2 layers, 2-3 in dorsal surface, semicircular in shape, epidermis dorsal and ventral present, hydroids well-developed; upper laminal cell rectangular to sub-linear, 26.5-41.5 × 4.9-6.6 µm, papillae at upper cells ends, basal cells sub-quadrate to rectangular, 24.9-31.5 × 8.3-13.2 µm, papillae at lower cell ends. Dioicous. Perichaetia gemmiform, subtended by a whorl of branches; perichaetial leaves ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-1.7 × 0.3-0.4 mm. Setae erect, reddish-brown, 1.5-1.6 cm long, transverse section rounded. Capsules erect to inclined, globose to subglobose when mature, 1.6-2.3 × 0.6-2.2 mm, furrowed when dry, striated when wet; exothecial cells quadrate to rectangular, irregularly arranged, thick-walled, 29.8-61.4 ×18.2-30.1 µm; stomata present, cryptopores; annulus absent. Operculum conic-mammillate. Peristome double, reddish-brown; exostome teeth lanceolate, fenestrate and bordered, 0.30-0.33 × 0.05-0.07 mm, outer surface coarsely papillose above, finely and densely papillose below, trabeculae thin above, inner surface sparsely granulose, trabeculae thick below; endostome segments 3/4 the length of the exostome, yellowish, coarsely papillose throughout, segments split along the median line and each half diverging toward the cilia, cilia 1-2, short, stout below. Calyptra not seen. Spores sub-reniform, yellowish-brown, 20-24 µm diameter; densely pilate, pila 1.17-1.67 µm long.
Philonotis esquelensis differs markedly from its Andean-Patagonian and Chilean congeners by the small to medium size, ovate-lanceolate leaves without differentiated margin; margin serrulate and slightly recurved at the apex; papillae at the upper cell ends in the apex, at the lower cell ends in the base; and an excurrent costa.
By its aspect it may be confused with P. nigroflava Müll. Hal., but the latter has leaves with a narrower base, costa short-excurrent, and narrower to linear laminal cells in the apex.
Geographic Distribution: Argentina, Chile (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.
Distribution map of P. esquelensis in southern South America.  

Specimens examined: ARGENTINA. Neuquén: Dpto. Huiliches, Parque Nacional Lanín, bosque coihue/ciprés/rodal a orillas del Lago, 39º43'22''S, 71º31'22''S, 1000 m, X/2009, J. Larraín 32067, con G. Suárez (CONC, CTES, LIL). Chubut: Por carretera a Esquel unos 140 km al norte en cascada con mesas para comer a un costado de la carretera, "Paraje al costado del camino", 42º09'41''S, 71º24'04''W, 400 m, 23/X/2009, J. Larraín 32094, con G. Suárez (CONC, CTES, LIL). Río Negro: Cerro Catedral, sobre paredón junto a la cascada, 29/I/1969, C. Matteri 379 (BA). CHILE. Región Metropolitana (RM), Prov. de Melipilla: Reserva Nacional Roblería del Cobre de Loncha, detrás de casa CONAF sector Los Maquis, 34°09'01''S, 70°56'58''W, 990 m, en talud seco junto al sendero saliendo hacia el NE, 24/IX/2007, J. Larraín 30030, con R. Vargas (CONC). Región del Bíobío (VIII), Prov. Concepción: Los Barros, Laguna del Laja, justo antes de llegar al refugio militar, 37°27'57''S, 71°19'20''W, 1450 m, en pared de roca húmeda, 22/XII/2006, J. Larraín 26264 (CONC); Los Barros, sobre paredón rocoso, 22/I/1969, C. Matteri 327 (BA); Los Barros, en "chorrillo" sobre paredón húmedo, 22/I/1969, C. Matteri 325 (BA); Región de la Araucanía (IX), Prov. Malleco: Reserva Nacional Lago Galletué, Pte. Los Milicos, afloramiento rocoso junto al río, matorral de Nothofagus antarctica y araucarias dispersas, 38º40'01''S, 71º23'08''W, 21/X/2009, J. Larraín 32001 con G. Suárez (CONC). Región de Aisén (XI), Prov. Capitán Prat: Cochrane, Reserva Nacional Tamango, a lo largo del sendero, primeros 200 m, 47°14'28''S, 72°31'12''W, 200 m, en el suelo, 17/I/2007, J. Larraín 26624, con R. Vargas (CONC).


Juan Larraín for making available the samples collected by him, Blanka Shaw and Delgadillo Moya for comments and suggestions on the manuscript, Inés Jaume for the illustrations, and the curators from the herbaria cited in the text. This research was supported by PIUNT, PIP 0078 and PICT 1838.


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Recibido el 7 de mayo de 2014,
aceptado el 20 de setiembre de 2014.

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