SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.36 número1Regeneración periodontal a través de procedimientos mínimamente invasivos y su influencia en el estado pulpar índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados




  • Não possue artigos citadosCitado por SciELO

Links relacionados

  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO


Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana

versão impressa ISSN 0326-4815versão On-line ISSN 1852-4834

Acta odontol. latinoam. vol.36 no.1 Buenos Aires abr. 2023  Epub 29-Abr-2023 


Influence of pigment solutions on color stability and surface properties in low-shrinkage and conventional composites

Influência de soluções pigmentantes na estabilidade de cor e propriedades de superfície em compósitos convencionais e de baixa contração

1Universidade Pitágoras Unopar-UNOPAR, Faculdade de Odontología, Departamento de Odontología Restauradora, Londrina, PR, Brasil

2Biomaterials and Biomechanics, School of Dentistry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA

3Universidade de Oampinas-UNIOAMP Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP Brasil

4Universidade Estadual de Londrina-UEL, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Londrina, PR, Brasil

5Universidade de Ouiabá-UNIO, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Odontologia, Ouiabá, MT, Brasil


Color stability is among the most frequent causes of restoration failures, and influences surface properties. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment solutions on low-shrinkage and conventional composites regarding changes in the physical properties of composite surfaces. Materials and Method: Specimens of four composites (Filtek Z350 XT, Point 4, N’Durance and Venus Diamond) were randomly distributed into three groups to be submitted to each of three pigment solutions (red wine, tomato sauce and coffee) in fifteen-minute daily cycles, for twenty-eight days. There were 12 groups altogether (n = 10). Color, surface roughness and hardness tests were performed. Statistical analysis includedAnalysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s significance test (a = 0.05). Results: Color changes caused by the solutions did not differ significantly among Filtek Z350 XT, Venus Diamond and N’Durance. Hardness decreased significantly in Filtek Z350 XT and Venus Diamond after chemical challenge with each solution. For the composite independent factor, roughness was highest in Venus Diamond, followed by Filtek Z350 XT, Point 4 and N’Durance. Conclusions: Treatment with different pigment solutions (red wine, tomato sauce or coffee) increased stainability and decreased hardness of both low-shrinkage and conventional composites, while roughness was unaffected.

Keywords: composite resins; surface properties; hardness


A estabilidade de cor está entre as causas mais frequentes de falhas de restauragoes, que também influenciam suas propriedades superficiais. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a influencia de solugoes de pigmentos em compósitos convencionais e de baixa retragao, bem como alteragoes naspropriedades físicas da superficie dos compósitos. Materiais eMétodo: Amostras de cada compósito (Filtek Z350XT, Point 4, N’Durance e Venus Diamond) foram distribuidas aleatoriamente em grupos submetidos a cada solugao pigmentante (vinho tinto, molho de tomate e café) em ciclos diários de quinze minutos, durante vinte e oito dias. Assim, totalizando 12 grupos (n = 10). Foram realizados testes de cor, rugosidade superficial e dureza. A Análise Estatistica foi realizada usando Análise de variáncia (ANOVA) e o teste de significáncia de Tukey (a = 0.05). Resultados: As alteragoes de cor desencadeadas pelas solugoes investigadas nao mostraram diferenga estatisticamente significativa entre os compósitos Filtek Z350 XT, Venus Diamond e N’Durance. Os valores de dureza registrados para Filtek Z350XT e Venus Diamond diminuiram significativamente após o desafio químico com cada uma das solugoes pigmentantes. Para o fator independente compósito, Venus Diamond registrou a maior rugosidade; foi seguido por Filtek Z350XT, Point 4 e N’Durance. Conclusoes: Os tratamentos das amostras com diferentes solugoes pigmentantes (vinho tinto, molho de tomate e café) aumentaram a manchabilidade dos compósitos convencionais e de baixa retragao e diminuiram sua dureza, embora nao tenham afetado a rugosidade dos compósitos.

Palavras-chave: resina composta; propriedades de superficie; dureza


Polymerization shrinkage in restorative composites, which depends on filler content and degree of conversion 1 , poses a major clinical challenge and cause for concern in restorative dentistry. Contraction and increased stiffness ofpolymer networks generate physical stress at the tooth/restoration interface and decrease restoration longevity 2 . Composites with low polymerization shrinkage were developed to minimize polymerization shrinkage issues.

Color is an important parameter of modern filler-based restorative materials. It can change due to the intake of large amounts of artificially colored drink and food 3 . Color stability, which is directly related to resin matrix structure and filler particle features, is one of the causes of restoration failures, also affecting surface smoothness and susceptibility to staining by extrinsic factors 4 .

Diet is one of the main extrinsic factors affecting resin color because the composite surface layer absorbs pigments from exogenous sources 5 . The influence of diet has been extensively researched in composites with traditional polymerization shrinkage rates 6 . The ability of composites to absorb water also enables them to absorb other fluids, resulting in discoloration, organic matrix degradation and reduced mechanical properties 7, 8 , even in nanoparticulate resins 9 . One method for measuring color change (ΔE*) is through Hunter’s equation. Values above 3.3 for this measurement are not clinically acceptable 10 .

Although there are studies on the effects of exposing methacrylate-based resins to pigment solutions, the effects of exposing low-shrinkage composites have not yet been fully explored. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of pigment solutions (red wine, tomato sauce and coffee) on low-shrinkage and conventional composites regarding changes in the physical properties (color change, surface roughness, microhardness) of the composite surface. The null hypotheses tested were that different pigment solutions would not influence (1) color change, (2) surface roughness or (3) microhardness of low shrinkage and conventional composites.


Specimen preparation

The study was performed on specimens of the low-shrinkage composites Venus Diamond (Heraeus Kulzer, South Bend, IN, USA) and N’Durance (Septodont, Louisville, CO, USA), and the conventional composites Point 4 (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and Filtek Z350 XT (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). All composites were shade A2. Composite features are specified in Table 1.

Table 1 Features of composites used in the current study. 

Composite Filtek Z350 XT Point 4 Venus Diamond N'Durance
Polymerization Shrinkage Conventional Conventional Low Low
Monomer Composition Bis-GMA, UDMA Bis-EMA, TEGDMA PEGDMA Exact composition not informed by manufacturer TCD-DI-HEA UDMA Dimer Dicarbamate Dimethacrylate (DADMA) Bis-EMA, UDMA
Particle Composition Silica, zirconia and zirconia/ silica clusters Colloidal silica, barium, aluminum-boron silicate Glass particles, barium-aluminum-fluorine Glass particles of barium, Ytterbium fluoride and silica
Particle Type Nanofilled Microhybrid Nanohybrid Nanohybrid
Average Particle Size 20 m, 4 -11 m 0.6-1.0 m 0.4 m 5 m - 20 m 10 m - 500 m
Particle Volume (%) 63.3% 58% 64% 65%
Manufacturer 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA Kerr, Orange, CA, USA Heraeus Kulzer, South Bend, IN, USA Septodont, Louisville, CO, USA
Lot Number #1404200572 #4948994 #010046 #092412A

Thirty cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite. The material was inserted (in a bulk increment) in 5.0-mm-diameter and 2.0-mm-tall molds using polyester strips (base and top), and photoactivated with a light-emitting diode curing unit (Radii Cal; SDI, Bayswater, Victoria, VIC, Australia) for 40 seconds (1400 mW/cm2); the light source was kept perpendicular to the specimen surface. Photoactivation and finishing procedures were only performed on the top of each specimen. The base of each specimen was marked with small grooves to identify the material. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, after which the top surface was finished using the following procedures: water sandpaper, grits 600, 1200 and 2000 for 1 minute each; sequential abrasive discs (Sof-Lex Pop-On; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) grits medium, fine and superfine for 20 seconds each; and felt disc (Diamondflex; FGM, Joinville, SC, Brazil) with diamond polishing paste (Diamond Excel; FGM) for 20 seconds. The specimens were subjected to ultrasonic washing to remove any finishing and polishing debris.

The specimens of each composite were randomly distributed into three groups, to be subjected to each colored solution: red wine (RW), tomato sauce (TS) or coffee (CO), thus totaling 12 groups (n = 10). Specimens were stored individually in plastic containers filled with 25 ml of distilled water at 37 °C. Color, roughness and hardness of each sample were evaluated.

Color change measurement

Color was measured in digital spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance; Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany) before (baseline) and after exposing the specimens to the colored solutions. The device records the values L*, a* and b*, based on parameters set by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE;Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage). According to the CIE L*a*b* method, color is analyzed 3-dimensionally on the following coordinates:

  • L*: Luminosity, which determines black and white variations at different times;

  • a*: which determines red (positive valúes) and green (negative valúes) variations at different times;

  • b*: which determines yellow (positive valúes) and blue (negative valúes) variations at different times.

After the measurement procedure, the specimens were placed back in their individual containers. They were divided into groups, based on composite and pigment solution, and subjected to daily submersion cycles as follows: specimens were removed from the plastic containers, gently dried with absorbent paper and plunged into new containers filled with 25 ml 11 of colored solution (red wine, tomato sauce or coffee) at room temperature for 15 minutes 12 . Then, they were removed from the solution, washed in distilled water and placed back in their original containers. Cycling procedures were repeated for 28 days 11 ; solutions and distilled water were changed every 5 days.

  • Color variation (ΔE*) was determined through Hunter’s equation:

    • * ΔEab * = [(AL*)2 + (Aa*)2 + (Ab*)2] 1/2

  • Color variations (ΔE*) were classified as follows 10:

  • ΔE*< 1: color changes undetectable to the human eye;

  • ΔE*< 3.3: clinically acceptable color changes;

  • ΔE*> 3.3: clinically unacceptable color changes resulting in the need of resin replacement due to poor aesthetics.

Roughness Test

A roughness meter (SJ-410; Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan) was used to assess surface roughness in each specimen after it was gently dried. The device was adjusted to perform a straight trajectory of 0.25 mm, with five repetitions at a speed of 0.1 mm/s. Mean Roughness (Ra) in pm was calculated from readings carried out in three different directions. Mean roughness was measured before and after cycling in pigment solutions.

Microhardness Test

Hardness was tested by measuring indentations produced on the top surface of each specimen (40x magnification) using a microhardness testing machine (HMV-G; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) under a load of 50 g at loading time of 5 seconds. Each specimen was gently dried, after which three indentations were made. The Knoop hardness was expressed as the mean of three indentations made on the same sample. Microhardness was measured before and after cycling in pigment solutions.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis was performed in the SAS System for Windows 9.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).

Two-way ANOVA was applied for color change (factors: composite and solution), and three-way ANOVA for surface roughness and hardness (factors: composite, solution and cycling); followed by Tukey’s significance test (a = 0.05) for all tests.


Color Changes

Color change values are shown in Table 2. For coffee, the composites Point 4 and N’Durance underwent greater color change than Filtek Z350 XT and Venus Diamond. For tomato sauce, the composites Venus Diamond and Filtek Z350 XT underwent weaker color change than Point 4, while color change in N’Durance did not differ from the others. For red wine, color change was similar in the composites Venus Diamond, Filtek Z350 XT and N’Durance, though weaker than in Point 4.

Table 2 Means and standard deviation for composite color changes (ÁE) with each pigment solution. 

Composite Solution
Coffee Tomato Sauce Red Wine
Point 4 4.20±0.41 a, B 4.56±0.25 a, B 5.85±0.68 a, A
Filtek Z350 XT 2.73±0.37 b, A 3.38±0.42 b, A 3.84±0.89 b, A
N Durance 3.62±0.40 a, A 4.00±0.87 ab, A 4.31±0.49 b, A
Venus 2.51±0.51 b, A 3.16±0.44 b, A 3.75±0.85 b, A

Surface Roughness

Mean roughness and its standard deviation are shown in Table 3. Venus Diamond was the roughest, followed by Filtek Z350 XT, Point 4 and N’Durance. The differences among these composites were statistically significant. The pigmented Solutions did not affect composite surface roughness.

Table 3 Mean roughness and standard deviation (Ra, pm) before (initial roughness) and after (final roughness) treatment. 

Composite Solution Initial Roughness Final Roughness
Point 4 (γ) Coffee 0.12±0.02 a, A 0.12±0.03 a, A
Tomato Sauce 0.12±0.02 a, A 0.12±0.02 a, A
Red Wine 0.12±0.01 a, A 0.13±0.01 a, A
Filtek Z350 XT (β) Coffee 0.13±0.01 a, A 0.14±0.02 a, A
Tomato Sauce 0.13±0.02 a, A 0.14±0.02 a, A
Red Wine 0.13±0.03 a, A 0.14±0.02 a, A
N Durance (δ) Coffee 0.10±0.01 a, A 0.11±0.01 a, A
Tomato Sauce 0.10±0.01 a, A 0.10±0.01 a, A
Red Wine 0.11±0.01 a, A 0.12±0.01 a, A
Venus (α) Coffee 0.17±0.02 a, A 0.18±0.02 a, A
Tomato Sauce 0.17±0.02 a, A 0.18±0.02 a, A
Red Wine 0.17±0.01 a, A 0.18±0.02 a, A


Hardness values for Filtek Z350 XT and Venus Diamond decreased significantly after chemical challenge with each colored solution, as shown in Table 4. Hardness decreased in all composites treated with coffee. For tomato sauce, hardness decreased in Point 4, Filtek Z350 XT and Venus Diamond. For red wine, hardness decreased in Filtek Z350 XT and Venus Diamond.

Table 4 Means and standard deviation for Knoop hardness (KHN). 

Hardness Composite Coffee Tomato Sauce Red Wine
Initial Hardness Point 4 74.3* (7.3) Ab 71.0* (5.8) Abc 68.7 (7.5) Ac
Filtek Z350 XT 92.0* (4.3) Aab 92.8* (3.9) Aab 93.7* (3.8) Aab
N Durance 73.1* (4.0) Ab 70.2 (3.2) Ac 71.9 (4.1) Ac
Venus 89.0* (4.8) Aab 81.0* (11.0) Ab 82.2* (9.0) Ab
Final Hardness Point 4 60.3 (5.5) Ab 58.1 (7.4) Ab 63.0 (7.0) Aab
Filtek Z350 XT 73.1 (7.2) Aab 69.6 (7.8) Aab 69.8 (4.8) Aab
N Durance 57.1 (4.4) Ab 66.8 (4.2) Aab 63.7 (5.5) Aab
Venus 63.8 (6.1) Aab 64.0 (6.5) Aab 61.8 (3.8) Aab


In vitro studies generally involve limitations. There is divergence in the literature regarding the selection of ideal pigment solutions for replicating composite behavior as realistically as possible. Coffee, tomato sauce and red wine solutions were selected for the current study. The results show (Table 2) that the tested solutions produced clinically unacceptable color changes (ΔE*> 3.3) 10 in all selected composites. Schmitt et al. 13 found similar results in a study evaluating the stain resistance of micro-hybrid and nanoparticulate resins subjected to multi-step polishing. Arreghi et al. 14 found similar results in nanohybrid and bulk-fill flowable composites exposed to tea, coffee, Coke, red wine and orange juice for six months.

Although many foods contain dyes, different dye types available on the market can lead to different consequences. In line with results found in the current study, Ardu et al. 15 showed that red wine has greater staining potential than coffee, probably because red wine contains tannin and anthocyanin, which may have a significant effect on the color change of the composite during aging, as well as high discoloration power.

Although the results for coffee were not significant, Asmussen et al. 16 reported that coffee may have increased staining potential if the solution is kept at 60°C. All solutions used in the current study were kept at room temperature (20°C); so further research may be required to clarify this point. In addition, although filler particles do not absorb water, they can play an important role in composite susceptibility to staining due to weak matrix-filler bond 15 .

Color in composites treated with tomato sauce (Table 2) did not differ significantly. The absolute values for color change were clinically unacceptable. Tomato sauce was used because it is often included in diets around the world, and its effect on color change in resinous composites has not yet been studied. Its acidic pH may influence composite color change, since it is associated with the discoloration mechanism 15 . Another study used tomato-based sauce (ketchup) on micro-hybrid resin and recorded significant color change 11 . Similarly, other acid-pH condiments found in diets worldwide, particularly Asian diets, were also found to cause color changes in nano and microparticulate composites 17 .

Coffee and red wine stains in the current study (Table 2) match data published in the literature, according to which red wine causes greater color change than coffee9,18,19. However, Aguiar et al. 9 found significantly higher pigment concentration in specimens stained with coffee and cola-based soda than in those subjected to red wine. It is worth mentioning that the presence of alcohol in red wine can lead to monomer removal from the surface of the composite resin, enable the absorption of pigmentation agents, and consequently, increase resin wear 20-22 . According to Benetti et al. 23 and Da Silva et al. 24 , contact with alcohol influences the color stability and susceptibility to staining of methacrylate-based composites. Asmussen et al. 20 and Guiraldo et al. 1 described the action of alcohol on the polymeric network of the organic matrix of different resins, suggesting that their effects can be indirectly assessed by measuring polymer softening during exposure to alcohol. The degree of conversion from double to single bonds between carbons in the organic matrix affects polymerization shrinkage 25 . Increased degree of conversion is directly associated with increased contraction stress in composites 26 . The degree of conversion depends on factors such as material composition, monomer type, filler particle type and quantity, filler particles/ organic matrix interactions, degree of conversion and polymerization techniques 2, 27 . Although degree of conversion is an important factor, it does not enable full polymeric network structure characterization. There was no significant difference in mean roughness values before and after the treatment with coloring substances (Table 3), possibly as a result of the finishing and polishing procedure applied. Finishing and polishing procedures influence materials’ properties. When the specimens were prepared, compression against a polyester strip provided a smooth surface. Polishing alone would be enough to explain the low roughness values recorded 28 . Composite resin polishability is influenced by the type, shape and content of filler particles, and, due to the spherical shape of their particles, microparticulate composites are more efficiently polished than hybrids3,29,30. Results in the present study show that particle size does not appear to have affected polishing degree, since one nanohybrid composite (Venus Diamond) presented higher mean roughness than another microhybrid, as well as statistical differences in mean roughness in comparison to other nanohybrid composites. The values recorded herein agree with Berger et al. 31 , who found no association between filler particle size and composite surface roughness. However, the association between polishing and particle size was observed when roughness was significantly lower in the nanofilled composite ‘Filtek Supreme XT’ than in the microhybrid after they had both undergone multi-stage polishing systems 13 . Similarly, Alkhadim et al. 32 did not observe major differences in the surface roughness of samples polished in a rotary system.

The composition of composite resins has some advantages related to nanometric particles: low polymerization shrinkage, surface smoothness, less wear, better color stability and improved mechanical properties 33 . In addition, particle geometry has direct impact on surface smoothness and stain resistance 5 . The use of nanoparticles in clusters (nanoclusters) reduces the space between particles, increases particle filler rates and improves the physical properties of the tested material 13 . These features may explain the roughness values recorded for Filtek Z350 XT in the present study, which were lower than the ones recorded for composite ‘Venus Diamond’.

The Knoop hardness test was used in the present study because it provides a good estimate of a monomer’s degree of conversion after polymerization, which directly affects mechanical properties of composites 34 . Insufficient monomer polymerization can lead to poor color stability, risk of pulp aggression by unpolymerized monomers, susceptibility to staining and regions presenting different Young’s modulus values, among other issues 35 . Decreased microhardness values recorded before and after tests conducted with different solutions (Table 4) can be attributed to the chemical composition of the materials and its effects on different resin components 36 . In addition, the polymeric matrix was highly susceptible to softening due to chemical action. Polymeric matrix damage depends on diffusion rates based on the molecular weight of the tested material 21 , which can compromise the other properties evaluated in the current study. Composites based on dimethacrylates presented a fast-formed cross-linked network during polymerization, which restricted reaction mobility 37 . These networks swell when they are exposed to solvents, because the attraction between them and solvent molecules is stronger than the attraction between them and polymers 34 . It may therefore be concluded that the solvent permeates the organic matrix. Thus, null hypotheses (1) and (3) were rejected because different pigment solutions led to changes in color and microhardness, whereas hypothesis (2) was accepted because the pigment solutions did not influence surface roughness.


The current study found that treating low-shrinkage and conventional composite specimens with different pigment solutions (red wine, tomato sauce or coffee) increased stainability, decreased hardness, and did not affect roughness.


1 Guiraldo RD, Consani S, Consani RL, Berger SB, et al. Light energy transmission through composite influenced by material shades. The Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2009;50(4):183-190. [ Links ]

2 Marchesi G, Breschi L, Antoniolli F, Di Lenarda R, et al. Contraction stress of low-shrinkage composite materials assessed with different testing systems. Dent Mater. 2010;26(10):947-953. [ Links ]

3 Jung M, Eichelberger K, Klimek J. Surface geometry of four nanofiller and one hybrid composite after one-step and multiple-step polishing. Oper Dent. 2011;32(4):347-355. [ Links ]

4 Shintani H, Satou N, Satpi K, Hayashihara H, et al. Effect of various finishing methods on staining and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans HS-6 on composite resins. Dent Mater. 1985;1(6):225-227. [ Links ]

5 Ergücü Z, Türkün LS, Aladag A. Color stability of nanocomposites polished with one-step systems. Oper Dent. 2008;33(4):413-420. [ Links ]

6 Kakaboura A, Fragouli M, Rahiotis C, Silikas N. Evaluation of surface characteristics of dental composites using profilometry, scanning electron, atomic force microscopy and gloss-meter. J Mater Sci. 2007;18(1):155-163. [ Links ]

7 O’Brien WJ, Johnston WM, Fanian F, Lambert S. The surface roughness and gloss of composites. J Dent Res. 1984;63(5):685-688. [ Links ]

8 Bagheri R, Burrow MF, Tyas M. Influence of food-simulating solutions and surface finish on susceptibility to staining of aesthetic restorative materials. J Dent. 2005;33(5):389-398. [ Links ]

9 Aguiar FHB, Georgetto MH, Soares GP, Catelan A, et al. Effect of Different Light-Curing Modes on Degree of Conversion, Staining Susceptibility and Stain’s Retention Using Different Beverages in a Nanofilled Composite Resin. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2011;23(2): 106-115. [ Links ]

10 Lee YK, Yu B, Lim HN, Lim JI. Difference in the color stability of direct and indirect resin composites. J Appl Oral Sci. 2011; 19(2): 154-160. [ Links ]

11 Soares-Geraldo D, Scaramucci T, Steagall-Jr W, Braga SRM, et al. Interaction between staining and degradation of a composite resin in contact with colored foods. Braz Oral Res. 2011;25(4):369-375. [ Links ]

12 Garcia PPNS, Neto ER, Santos PA, Campos JADB, et al. Influence of the surface sealant on the translucency of composite resin: effect of immersion time and immersion media. Mat Res. 2008;11(2):193-197. [ Links ]

13 Schmitt VL, Puppin-Rontani RM, Naufel FS, et al. Effect of the polishing procedures on color stability and surface roughness of composite resins. ISRN Dent. 2011;2011:617672. [ Links ]

14 Arregui M, Giner L, Ferrari M, Vallés M, et al. Six-month color change and water sorption of 9 new-generation flowable composites in 6 staining solutions. Braz Oral Res. 2016;30(1):e123. [ Links ]

15 Ardu S, Braut V, Gutemberg D, Krejci I, et al. A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials. Quintessence Int. 2010;41(8):695-702. ]

16 Asmussen E. An accelerated test for color stability of dental composite resins. Acta Odontol Scand. 1981 ;39(6):329-332. [ Links ]

17 Yew HZ, Berekally TL, Richards LC. A laboratory investigation of colour changes in two contemporary resin composites on exposure to spices. Aust Dent J. 2013;58(4):468-477. [ Links ]

18 Guler AU, Yilmaz F, Kulunk T. Effects of different drinks on stainability of resin composite provisional restorative materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;94(2):118-124. [ Links ]

19 Stober T, Gilde H, Lenz P. Color stability of highly filled composite resinmaterials forfacings. DentMater. 2001;17(1):87-94. [ Links ]

20 Asmussen E, Peutzfeldt A. An Influence of pulse-delay curing on softening of polymer structures. J Dent Res. 2001;80(3): 1570-1573. [ Links ]

21 Mckinney JE, Wu W. Chemical softening and wear of dental composites. J Dent Res. 1985;64(11): 1326-1331. [ Links ]

22 Sarret DC, Coletti DP, Peluso AR. The effects of alcoholic beverages on composite wear. Dent Mater. 2000;16(1):62-67. [ Links ]

23 Benetti AR, Jesus VCBR, Martinelli NL, Pascotto RC, et al. Colour stability, staining ang roughness of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges. J Dent. 2013;41(12):1229-1235. [ Links ]

24 Da Silva MAB, Vitt RP, Sinhoreti MAC, Consani RLX, et al. Effect of alcoholic beverages on surface roughness and microhardness of dental composites. Dent Mater J. 2016;35(4):621-626. [ Links ]

25 Papadogiannis D, Kakaboura A, Palaghias G, Eliades G. Setting characteristics and cavity adaptation of low-shrinking resin composites. Dent Mater. 2009;25(12):1509-1516. [ Links ]

26 Sakaguchi RL, Berge HX. Reduced light energy density decreases post-gel contraction while maintaining degree of conversión in composites. J Dent. 1988;26(8):695-700. [ Links ]

27 Braga RR, Ballester RY, Ferracane JL. Factors involved in the development of polymerization shrinkage stress in resin-composites: a systematic review. DentMater. 2005;21(10):962-70. [ Links ]

28 Bollen CML, Lambrechts P, Quirynen M. Comparison of surface roughness of oral hard materials to the threshold surface roughness for bacterial plaque retention: a review of the literature. Dent Mater. 1997;13(4):258-269. [ Links ]

29 Berastegui E, Canalda C, Braum E, Miquel C. Surface roughness of finished composites resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1992;68(5):742-749. [ Links ]

30 Takanashi E, Kishikawa R, Ikeda M. Influence of abrasive particle size on surface properties of flowable composites. Dent Mater J. 2008;27(6):780-786. [ Links ]

31 Berger SB, Palialol ARM, Cavalli V, Giannini M. Surface roughness and staining susceptibility of composite resins after finishing and polishing. J Esthet Rest Dent. 2011;23(1):34-45. [ Links ]

32 Alkhadim HK, Hulbah MJ, Nassar HM. Color shift, color stability and post-polishing surface roughness of esthetic resin composites. Materials (Basel). 2020; 13(6):e1376. [ Links ]

33 Terry DA. Direct applications of a nanocomposite resin system - part 1: the evolution of contemporary composite materials. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2004;16(6):417-422. [ Links ]

34 Ferracane JL. Correlation between hardness and degree of conversion during the setting reaction of unfilled dental restorative resins. Dent Mater. 1985;1(1):11-14. [ Links ]

35 Shortall AC, Wilson HJ, Harrington E. Depth of cure of radiation-activated composite restoratives - influence of shade and opacity. J Oral Rehab. 1995;22(5):337-342. [ Links ]

36 Okte Z, Villalta P, García-Godoy F, Lu H, Powers JM. Surface hardness of resin composites after staining and bleaching. Oper Dent. 2006;31(5):623-628. [ Links ]

37 Lu H, Stansbury JW, Bowman CN.Impact ofcuring protocol on conversion and shrinkage stress. J Dent Res. 2005;84(9):822-826. [ Links ]


This study was supported by a Grant from Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - Brazil (CAPES) - Financing Code 001.

Received: June 1, 2022; Accepted: November 1, 2022

Corresponding Author: Ricardo Danil Guiraldo

DECLARATION OF CONFLICTING INTERESTS The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest regarding the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License