SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Referencias del artículo

MARTINEZ, Samanta Andrea; CANCELA, Liliana Marina  y  VIRGOLINI, Miriam Beatriz. El estrés oxidativo como mecanismo de acción del plomo: Implicancias terapéuticas. Acta toxicol. argent. [online]. 2011, vol.19, n.2, pp. 61-79. ISSN 1851-3743.

    1. Acharya S., Acharya U.R. In vivo lipid peroxidation responses of tissues in lead-treated Swiss mice. Ind Health. 1997;35(4):542-544. [ Links ]

    2. Adonaylo V.N., Oteiza P.I. Lead intoxication: antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in rat brain. Toxicology. 1999;135(2-3):77-85. [ Links ]

    3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [en línea]. Toxicological profile for lead. (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2007 [actualizado al 15 de Julio de 2008; consulta: 21 de Septiembre de 2009]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

    4. Ahamed M., Siddiqui M.K. Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;383(1-2):57-64. [ Links ]

    5. Ahamed M., Verma S., Kumar A., Siddiqui M.K. Environmental exposure to lead and its correlation with biochemical indices in children. Sci Total Environ. 2005;346(1-3):48-55. [ Links ]

    6. Ahamed M., Verma S., Kumar A., Siddiqui M.K. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition and oxidative stress in relation to blood lead among urban adolescents. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006;25(9):547-553. [ Links ]

    7. Aimo L, Oteiza P.I. Zinc deficiency increases the susceptibility of human neuroblastoma cells to lead-induced activator protein-1 activation. Toxicol Sci. 2006;91(1):184-191. [ Links ]

    8. Antonio-García M.T., Massó-Gonzalez E.L. Toxic effects of perinatal lead exposure on the brain of rats: involvement of oxidative stress and the beneficial role of antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(6):2089-2095. [ Links ]

    9. Azzi A., Boscoboinik D., Hensey C. The protein kinase C family. Eur J Biochem. 1992;208(3):547-557. [ Links ]

    10. Balparda J.K. Intoxicación por plomo: una revisión con énfasis en la población pediátrica. Rev CES Med. 2008;22(1):43-58. [ Links ]

    11. Batra N., Nehru B., Bansal M.P. The effect of zinc supplementation on the effects of lead in the rat testis. Reprod Toxicol. 1998;12(5):535-540. [ Links ]

    12. Bechara E.J. Oxidative stress in acute intermittent porphyria and lead poisoning may be triggered by 5-aminolevulinc acid. Braz J Med Res. 1996;29(7):841-851. [ Links ]

    13. Bellinger D.C., Needleman H.L. Intellectual impairment and blood lead levels. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(5):500-502. [ Links ]

    14. Betteridge D.J. What is oxidative stress? Metabolism. 2000;49(2Suppl1):3-8. [ Links ]

    15. Bokara K.K., Brown E., McCormick R., Yallapragada P.R., Rajanna S., Bettaiya R. Leadinduced increase in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in developing rat brain. Biometals. 2008;21(1):9-16. [ Links ]

    16. Brigelius-Flohé R. Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors. Biol Chem. 2006;387(10-11):1329-1335. [ Links ]

    17. Bussche J.V., Soares E.V. Lead induces oxidative stress and phenotypic markers of apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90(2):679-687. [ Links ]

    18. Bustamante J., Lodge J.K., Marcocci L., Tritschler H.J., Packer L., Rihn B.H. alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease. Free Radical Biol Med. 1998;24(6):1023-1039. [ Links ]

    19. Cabaravdic M., Mijanovic M., Kusturica J., Cabaravdic A. Occupational exposure of workers at gas station to inorganic lead. Med Arh. 2010;64(2):107-109. [ Links ]

    20. Calderón-Cabrera L., Durán-Galetta M. G., García I., Galetta D., Lacruz L., Naranjo R., Pérez B., Ferreira E. Determination of the Nacetylcysteine and methionine effects in the cerebellum of rats intoxicated with lead. Invest Clin. 2008;49(1):17-28. [ Links ]

    21. Canfield R.L., Henderson C.R. Jr., Cory-Slechta D.A., Cox C., Jusko T.A., Lanphear B.P. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(16):1517-1526. [ Links ]

    22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [en línea]. Screening young children for lead poisoning: guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1991. [Actualizado al 1 de Junio de 2009; consulta: 21 de Septiembre de 2009]. Disponible en: [ Links ]

    23. Chiba M., Shinohara A., Matsushita K., Watanabe H., Inaba Y. Indices of lead-exposure in blood and urine of lead-exposed workers and concentrations of major and trace elements and activities of SOD, GSH-Px and catalase in their blood. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1996;178(1):49-62. [ Links ]

    24. Choi H.J., Kang S.W., Yang C.H., Rhee S.G., Ryu S.E. Crystal structure of a novel human peroxidase enzyme at 2.0 Å resolution. Nat Struct Biol. 1998;5(5):400-406. [ Links ]

    25. Circu M.L., Aw T.Y. Reactive oxygen species, cellular redox systems, and apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48(6):749-762. [ Links ]

    26. Conterato G.M., Augusti P.R., Somacal S., Einsfeld L., Sobieski R., Torres J.R., Emanuelli T. Effect of lead acetate on cytosolic thioredoxin reductase activity and oxidative stress parameters in rat kidneys. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101(2):96-100. [ Links ]

    27. Costa C.A., Trivelato G.C., Pinto A.M., Bechara E.J. Correlation between plasma 5-aminolevulinic acid concentrations and indicators of oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. Clin Chem. 1997;43(7):1196-1202. [ Links ]

    28. Cutler R.G. Oxidative stress profiling: part I. Its potential importance in the optimization of human health. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1055:93-135. [ Links ]

    29. Daggett D.A., Oberley T.D., Nelson S.A., Wright L.S., Kornguth S.E., Siegel F.L. Effects of lead on rat kidney and liver: GST expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology. 1998;128(3):191-206. [ Links ]

    30. Dalley J.W., Gupta P.K., Hung C.T. A physiological pharmacokinetic model describing the disposition of lead in the absence and presence of L-ascorbic acid in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1990;50(2-3):337-348. [ Links ]

    31. Daniel S., Limson J.L., Dairam A., Watkins G.M., Daya S. Through metal binding, curcumin protects against lead- and cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain. J Inorg Biochem. 2004;98(2):266-275. [ Links ]

    32. Das K.K., Saha S. L-ascorbic and alpha tocopherol supplementation and antioxidant status in nickel- or lead-exposed rat brain tissue. J Basic Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21(4):325-346. [ Links ]

    33. Ding Y., Gonick H.C., Vaziri N.D. Lead promotes hydroxyl radical generation and lipid peroxidation in cultured aortic endothelial cells. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13(5Pt1):552-555. [ Links ]

    34. Douki T., Onuki J., Madeiros M.H., Bechara E.J., Cadet J., Di Mascio P. DNA alkylation by 4,5-dioxovaleric acid, the final oxidation product of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Chem. Res Toxicol. 1998b;11(2):150-157. [ Links ]

    35. Douki T., Onuki J., Madeiros M.H., Bechara E.J., Cadet J., Di Mascio P. Hydroxyl radicals are involved in the oxidation of isolated and cellular DNA bases by 5-aminolevulinic acid. FEBS Lett. 1998a;428(1-2):93-96. [ Links ]

    36. El-Shafai A., Zohdy N., El Mulla K., Hassan M., Morad N. Light and electron microscopic study of the toxic effect of prolonged lead exposure on the seminiferous tubules of albino rats and the possible protective effect of ascorbic acid. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(4):734-743. [ Links ]

    37. Ercal N., Treeratphan P., Hammond T.C., Matthews R.H., Grannemann N.H., Spitz D.R. In vivo indices of oxidative stress in lead-exposed C57BL/6 mice are reduced by treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or N-acetylcysteine. Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;21(2):157-161. [ Links ]

    38. Ergurhan-Ilhan I., Cadir B., Koyuncu-Arslan C., Arslan C., Gultepe F. M., Ozkan G. Level of oxidative stress and damage in erythrocytes in apprentices indirectly exposed to lead. Pediatr Int. 2008;50(1):45-50. [ Links ]

    39. Fan G., Feng C., Li Y., Wang C., Yan J., Feng J., Shi X., Bi Y. Selection of nutrients for prevention or amelioration of lead-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53(4):341-351. [ Links ]

    40. Faraci F.M., Didion S.P. Vascular protection: superoxide dismutase isoforms in the vessel wall. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24(8):1367-1373. [ Links ]

    41. Findlay V.J., Tapiero H., Townsend D.M. Sulfiredoxin: a potential therapeutic agent? Biomed Pharmacother. 2005;59(7):374-379. [ Links ]

    42. Fischer A.B., Hess C., Neubauer T., Eikmann T. Testing of chelating agents and vitamins against lead toxicity using mammalian cell cultures. Analyst. 1998;123(1):55-58. [ Links ]

    43. Flora G.J., Seth P.K. Alterations in some membrane properties in rat brain following exposure to lead. Cytobios. 2000;103(403):103-109. [ Links ]

    44. Flora S.J., Flora G., Saxena G., Mishra M. Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2007a;53(1):26-47. [ Links ]

    45. Flora S.J., Jain V.K., Behari J.R., Tandon S.K. Protective role of trace metals in lead intoxication. Toxicol Lett. 1982;13(1-2):51-56. [ Links ]

    46. Flora S.J., Mittal M., Mehta A. Heavy metal induced oxidative stress & its possible reversal by chelation therapy. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128(4):501-523. [ Links ]

    47. Flora S.J., Pande M., Kannan G.M., Mehta A. Lead induced oxidative stress and its recovery following co-administration of melatonin or Nacetylcysteine during chelation with succimer in male rats. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2004;50:OL543-OL551. [ Links ]

    48. Flora S.J., Pande M., Mehta A. Beneficial effect of combined administration of some naturally occurring antioxidants (vitamins) and thiol chelators in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication. Chem Biol Interact. 2003;145(3):267-280. [ Links ]

    49. Flora S.J., Saxena G., Mehta A. Reversal of lead-induced neuronal apoptosis by chelation treatment in rats: role of reactive oxygen species and intracellular Ca(2+). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007b;322(1):108-116. [ Links ]

    50. Forman H.J., Zhang H., Rinna A. Glutathione: Overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30(1-2):1-12. [ Links ]

    51. Forsberg L., de Faire U., Morgenstern R. Oxidative stress, human genetic variation, and disease. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;389(1):84-93. [ Links ]

    52. Fridovich I. Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases. Annu Rev Biochem. 1995;64:97-112. [ Links ]

    53. Fujita H., Nishitani C., Ogawa K. Lead, chemical porphyria, and heme as a biological mediator. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002;196(2):53-64. [ Links ]

    54. García-Ruiz C., Fernández-Checa J.C. Mitochondrial glutathione: hepatocellular survival- death switch. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(Suppl3):S3-S6. [ Links ]

    55. Gautam P., Flora S.J. Oral supplementation of gossypin during lead exposure protects alteration in heme synthesis pathway and brain oxidative stress in rats. Nutrition. 2010;26(5):563-570. [ Links ]

    56. Goering P.L. Lead-protein interactions as a basis for lead toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 1993;14(2-3):45-60. [ Links ]

    57. Grover P., Rekhadevi P. V., Danadevi K., Vuyyuri S. B., Mahboob M., Rahman M. F. Genotoxicity evaluation in workers occupationally exposed to lead. Int Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213(2):99-106. [ Links ]

    58. Gulson B.L., Mizon K.J., Korsch M.J., Mahaffey K.R., Taylor A.J. Dietary intakes of selected elements from longitudinal 6-day duplicate diets for pregnant and nonpregnant subjects and elemental concentrations of breast milk and infants formula. Environ Res. 2001;87(3):160-174. [ Links ]

    59. Gurer H., Ercal N. Can antioxidants be beneficial in the treatment of lead poisoning? Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(10):927-945. [ Links ]

    60. Gurer H., Ozgunes H., Neal R., Spitz D.R., Ercal N. Antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine and succimer in red blood from lead-exposed rats. Toxicology. 1998;128(3):181-189. [ Links ]

    61. Gurer-Orhan H., Sabir H.U., Ozgunes H. Correlation between clinical indicators of lead poisoning and oxidative stress parameters in controls and lead-exposed workers. Toxicology. 2004;195(2-3):147-154. [ Links ]

    62. Han D., Handelman G., Marcocci L., Sen C.K., Roy S., Kobuchi H, Tritschler H.J., Flohé L., Packer L. Lipoic acid increases de novo synthesis of cellular glutathione by improving cystine utilization. Biofactors. 1997;6(3):321-338. [ Links ]

    63. Han S.G., Kim Y., Kashon M.L., Pack D.L., Castranova V., Vallyathan V. Correlates of oxidative stress and free-radical activity in serum from asymptomatic shipyard welders. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(12):1541-1548. [ Links ]

    64. Hansen J.M., Zhang H., Jones D.P. Differential oxidation of thioredoxin-1, thioredoxin-2, and glutathione by metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40(1):138-145. [ Links ]

    65. Hermes-Lima M., Pereira B., Bechara E.J.H. Are free radicals involved in lead poisoning? Xenobiotica. 1991;21(8):1085-1090. [ Links ]

    66. Hiraku Y., Kawanishi S. Mechanism of oxidative DNA damage induced by delta-aminolevulinic acid in the presence of copper ion. Cancer Res. 1996;56(8):1786-1793. [ Links ]

    67. Hogg N. The biochemistry and physiology of S-nitrosothiols. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;42:585-600. [ Links ]

    68. Hsu P.C., Guo Y.L. Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity. Toxicology. 2002;180(1):33-44. [ Links ]

    69. Hsu P.C., Hsu C.C., Liu M.Y., Chen L.Y., Guo Y.L. Lead-induced changes in spermatozoa function and metabolism. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998;55(1):45-64. [ Links ]

    70. Hunaiti A., Soud M., Khalil A. Lead concentration and the level of glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, reductase and peroxidase in the blood of some occupational workers from Irbid City, Jordan. Sci Total Environ. 1995;170(1-2):95-100. [ Links ]

    71. Ichiba M., Tomokuni K. Studies on erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) test and its evaluation in workers occupationally exposed to lead. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990;62(4):305-310. [ Links ]

    72. Ito Y., Niiya Y., Kurita H., Shima S., Sarai S. Serum lipid peroxide level and blood superoxide dismutase activity in workers with occupational exposure to lead. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1985;56(2):119-127. [ Links ]

    73. Izawa S., Inoue Y., Kimura A. Importance of catalase in the adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide: analysis of acatalasaemic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 1996;320(Pt1):61-67. [ Links ]

    74. Jiao J., Lü G., Liu X., Zhu H., Zhang Y. Reduction of blood lead levels in lead-exposed mice by dietary supplements and natural antioxidants. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91(3):185-491. [ Links ]

    75. Jomova K., Valko M. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology. 2011;283(2-3):65-87. [ Links ]

    76. Jurczuk M., Brzóska M. M., Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Hepatic and renal concentrations of vitamins E and C in lead- and ethanol-exposed rats. An assessment of their involvement in the mechanisms of peroxidative damage. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(8):1478-1486. [ Links ]

    77. Jurczuk M., Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J., Brzóska M.M. Involvement of some low-molecular thiols in the peroxidative mechanisms of lead and ethanol action on rat liver and kidney. Toxicology. 2006;219(1-3):11-21. [ Links ]

    78. Jusko T.A., Henderson C.R., Lanphear B.P., Cory-Slechta D.A., Parsons P.J., Canfield R.L. Blood lead concentrations < 10 microg/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(2):243-248. [ Links ]

    79. Kang H. G., Jeong S. H., Cho M. R., Bischoff K. Time-dependent changes in lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid after subchronic lead exposure in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28(10):647-654. [ Links ]

    80. Kaplowitz N., Aw T.Y., Ookhtens M. The regulation of hepatic glutathione. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1985;25:715-744. [ Links ]

    81. Kasperczyk S., Birkner E., Kasperczyk A., Zalejska- Fiolka J. Activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in people protractedly exposed to lead compounds. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(2):291-296. [ Links ]

    82. Kehrer J.P. The Heber-Weiss reaction and mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicology. 2000;149(1):43-50. [ Links ]

    83. Kharoubi O., Slimani M., Aoues A., Seddik L. Prophylactic effects of Wormwood on lipid peroxidation in an animal model of lead intoxication. Indian J Nephrol. 2008;18(2):51-57. [ Links ]

    84. Kim Y.O., Pyo M.Y., Kim J.H. Influence of melatonin on immunotoxicity of lead. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000;22(10):821-832. [ Links ]

    85. Knowles S.O., Donaldson W.E. Dietary modification of lead toxicity: effects on fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1990;95(1):99-104. [ Links ]

    86. Kontos H.A., Wei E.P., Ellis E.F., Jenkins L.W., Povlishock J.T., Rowe G.T., Hess M.L. Appearance of superoxide anion radical in cerebral extracellular space during increased prostaglandin synthesis in cats. Circ Res. 1985;57(1):142-151. [ Links ]

    87. Kosik-Bogacka D.I., Baranowska-Bosiacka I., Marchlewicz M., Kolasa A., Olszewska M., Lanocha N., Wiernicki I., Millo B., Wiszniewska B., Chlubek D. The effects of L-ascorbic acid and/or tocopherol supplementation on electrophysiological parameters of the colon of rats chronically exposed to lead. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17(1):BR16-26. [ Links ]

    88. Kotler M., Rodriguez C., Sainz R.M., Antolín I., Menéndez-Paláez A. Melatonin increases gene expression for antioxidant enzymes in rat brain cortex. J Pineal Res. 1998;24(2):83-89Links ]

    89. Kregel K.C., Zhang H.J. An integrated view of oxidative stress in aging: basic mechanisms, functional effects, and pathological considerations. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(1):R18-R36. [ Links ]

    90. Lauwerys R., Roels H., Buchet J.P., Bernard A.A., Verhoeven L., Konings J. The influence of orally-administered vitamin C or zinc on the absorption of and biological response to lead. J Occup Med. 1983;25(9):668-678. [ Links ]

    91. Lawton L.J., Donaldson W.E. Lead-induced tissue fatty acid alterations and lipid peroxidation. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991;28(2):83-97. [ Links ]

    92. Lee D.H., Lim J.S., Song K., Boo Y., Jacobs D.R. Jr. Graded associations of blood lead and urinary cadmium concentrations with oxidative- stress-related markers in the U.S. population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(3):350-354. [ Links ]

    93. Leggett R.W. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101(7):598-616. [ Links ]

    94. Li G.J., Zhang L.L., Lu L., Wu P., Zheng W. Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and lead in body fluids and the oxidative stress status. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46(3):241-248. [ Links ]

    95. Liao Y., Yu F., Jin Y., Lu C., Li G., Zhi X., An L., Yang J. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. Arch Toxicol. 2008a;82(1):37-43. [ Links ]

    96. Liao Y., Zhang J., Jin Y., Lu C., Li G., Yu F., Zhi X., An L., Yang J. Therapeutic potentials of combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild to moderately lead intoxicated mice. Biometals. 2008b;21(1):1-8. [ Links ]

    97. Lin S., Cullen W.R., Thomas D.J. Methylarsenicals and arsinothiols are potent inhibitors of mouse liver thioredoxin reductase. Chem Res Toxicol. 1999;12(10):924-930. [ Links ]

    98. Liu C-M., Zheng Y-L., Lu J., Zhang Z-F., Fan S-H., Wu D-M., Ma J-Q. Quercetin protects rat liver against lead-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;29:158-166. [ Links ]

    99. Lu S.C. Regulation of synthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30(1-2):42-59. [ Links ]

    100. Machartová V., Racek J., Kohout J., Senft V., Trefil L. Effect of antioxidant therapy on indicators of radical activity in workers at risk of lead exposure. Vnitr Lek. 2000;46(8):444-446. [ Links ]

    101. Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. Pediatr Rev. 2000;21(10):327-335. [ Links ]

    102. Marnett L.J. Oxyradicals and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(3):361-370. [ Links ]

    103. Massó-González E.L., Antonio-García M.T. Natural antioxidants protect against leadinduced damage during pregnancy and lactation rat´s pups. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72(8):2137-2142. [ Links ]

    104. Mayo J.C., Tan D.X., Sainz R.M., Natarajan M., Lopez-Burillo S., Reiter R.J. Protection against oxidative protein damage induced by metal-catalyzed reaction or alkylperoxyl radicals: comparative effects of melatonin and other antioxidants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1620(1-3):139-150. [ Links ]

    105. McGowan C. Influence of vitamin B6 status on aspects of lead poisoning in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1989;47(1):87-93. [ Links ]

    106. McIntyre M., Bohr D.F., Dominiczak A.F. Endothelial function in hypertension: the role of superoxide anion. Hypertension. 1999;34(4Pt1):539-545. [ Links ]

    107. Mikler J., Banovcin P., Jesenak M., Hamzikova J., Statelova D. Successful treatment of extreme acute lead intoxication. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25(2):137-140. [ Links ]

    108. Mohammad A., Ali N., Reza B., Ali K. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010;42(2):78-81. [ Links ]

    109. Monteiro H.P., Abdalla D.S., Augusto O., Bechara E.J. Free radical generation during delta-aminolevulinic acid auto-oxidation: induction by hemoglobin and connections with porphyrinpathies. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;271(1):206-216. [ Links ]

    110. Morin B., Narbonne J.F., Ribera D., Badouard C., Ravanat J.L. Effect of dietary fat-soluble vitamins A and E and proanthocyanidin- rich extract from grape seeds on oxidative DNA damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(2):787-796. [ Links ]

    111. Moshtaghie A. A., Ani M., Aghadavod E., Fazilati M. Protective effects of selenium and zinc on changes in catecholamine levels of brain regions in lead intoxified rat. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10(17):2964-2967. [ Links ]

    112. Muller F.L., Lustgarten M.S., Jang Y., Richardson A., Van Remmen H. Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43(4):477-503. [ Links ]

    113. Neal R., Yang P., Fiechtl J., Yildiz D., Gurer H., Ercal N. Pro-oxidant effects of deltaaminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Toxicol Lett. 1997;91(3):169-178. [ Links ]

    114. Needleman H. Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med. 2004;55:209-222. [ Links ]

    115. Nordberg J., Arnér E.S. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, and the mammalian thioredoxin system. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31(11):1287-1312. [ Links ]

    116. Noriega G.O., Tomaro M.L., Del-Batlle A.M. Bilirubin is highly effective in preventing in vivo delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced oxidative cell damage. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1638(2):173-178. [ Links ]

    117. Oja S.S., Janaky R., Varga V., Saranasaari P. Modulation of glutamate receptor functions by glutathione. Neurochem Int. 2000;37(2-3):299-306. [ Links ]

    118. Oktem F., Arslan M.K., Dündar B., Delibas N., Gültepe M., Ergürhan Ilhan I. Renal effects and erythrocyte oxidative stress in long-term low-level lead-exposed adolescent workers in auto repair workshops. Arch Toxicol. 2004;78(12):681-687. [ Links ]

    119. Omenn G.S., Goodman G.E., Thornquist M.D., Balmes J., Cullen M.R., Glass A., Keogh J.P., Meykens F.L., Valanis B., Williams J.H., Barnhart S., Hammar S. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1150-1055. [ Links ]

    120. Osman K., Schürtz A., Akesson B., Marciag F., Vahter M. Interactions between essential and toxic elements in lead exposed children in Katowice, Poland. Clin Biochem. 1998;31(8):657-665. [ Links ]

    121. Othman A.I., El-Missiry M.A. Role of selenium against lead toxicity in male rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 1998;12(6):345-349. [ Links ]

    122. Othman A.I., Sharawy S., el-Missiry M.A. Role of melatonin in ameliorating lead induced haematotoxicity. Pharmacol Res. 2004;50(3):301-307. [ Links ]

    123. Packer L. Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(4 Suppl):1050S-1055S. [ Links ]

    124. Packer L., Witt E.H., Tritschler H.J. alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19(2):227-250. [ Links ]

    125. Pallardó F.V., Markovic J., García J.L., Viña J. Role of nuclear glutathione as a key regulator of cell proliferation. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30(1-2):77-85. [ Links ]

    126. Pande M., Flora S.J. Lead induced oxidative damage and its response to combined administration of alpha-lipoic acid and succimers in rats. Toxicology. 2002;177(2-3):187-196. [ Links ]

    127. Pande M., Mehta A., Pant B.P., Flora S.J. Combined administration of a chelating agent and an antioxidant in the prevention and treatment of acute lead intoxication in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;9(4):173-184. [ Links ]

    128. Patil A.J., Bhagwat V.R., Patil J.A., Dongre N.N., Ambekar J.G., Jailkhani R., Das K.K. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2006;3(4):329-337. [ Links ]

    129. Patra R.C., Swarup D., Dwivedi S.K. Antioxidant effects of alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid and L-methionine on lead induced oxidative stress to the liver, kidney and brain in rats. Toxicology. 2001;162(2):81-88. [ Links ]

    130. Patrick L. Lead toxicity, a review of the literature. Part 1: Exposure, evaluation, and treatment. Altern Med Rev. 2006a;11(1):2-22. [ Links ]

    131. Patrick L. Lead toxicity part II: the role of free radical damage and the use of antioxidants in the pathology and treatment of lead toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 2006b;11(2):114-127. [ Links ]

    132. Penugonda S., Ercal N. Comparative evaluation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) on glutamate and lead-induced toxicity in CD-1. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201(1):1-7. [ Links ]

    133. Pompella A., Visvikis A., Paolicchi A., De Tata V., Casini A.F. The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66(8):1499-1503. [ Links ]

    134. Powell S.R. The antioxidant properties of zinc. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1447S-1454S. [ Links ]

    135. Reckziegel P., Dias V.T., Benvegnú D., Boufleur N., Silva Barcelos R.C., Segat H.J., Pase C.S., Dos Santos C.M., Flores E.M., Bürger M.E. Locomotor damage and brain oxidative stress induced by lead exposure are attenuated by gallic acid treatment. Toxicol Lett. 2011;203(1):74-81. [ Links ]

    136. Reed D.J., Orrenius S. The role of methionine in glutathione biosynthesis by isolated hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977;77(4):1257-1264. [ Links ]

    137. Reiter R.J. Melatonin: clinical relevance. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;17(2):273-285. [ Links ]

    138. Reiter R.J., Tan D.X., Qi W., Manchester L.C., Karbownik M., Calvo J.R. Pharmacology and physiology of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in vivo. Biol Signals Recept. 2000;9(3-4):160-171. [ Links ]

    139. Rendon-Ramirez A., Cerbon-Solorzano J., Maldonado-Vega M., Quintanar-Escorza M.A., Calderon-Salinas J.V. Vitamin-E reduces the oxidative damage on delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase induced by lead intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Toxicology In Vitro. 2007;21(6):1121-1126. [ Links ]

    140. Rhee S.G., Chae H.Z., Kim K. Peroxiredoxins: a historical overview and speculative preview of novel mechanisms and emerging concepts in cell signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38(12):1543-1552. [ Links ]

    141. Roberts R.A., Laskin D.L., Smith C.V., Robertson F.M., Allen E.M., Doorn J.A., Slikker W. Nitrative and oxidative stress in toxicology and disease. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112(1):4-16. [ Links ]

    142. Rogan W.J., Dietrich K.N., Ware J.H., Dockery D.W., Salganik M., Radcliffe J, Jones R.L., Ragan N.B., Rhoads G.G. The effect of chelation therapy with succimer on neuropsychological development in children exposed to lead. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(19):1421-1426. [ Links ]

    143. Ryan-Harshman M., Aldoori W. The relevance of selenium to immunity, cancer, and infectious/ inflammatory diseases. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005;66(2):98-102. [ Links ]

    144. Sakai T., Morita Y. Delta-aminolevulinic acid in plasma or whole blood as a sensitive indicator of lead effects, and its relation to the other heme-related parameters. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1996;68(2):126-132. [ Links ]

    145. Sandhir R., Julka D., Gill K.D. Lipoperoxidative damage on lead exposure in rat brain and its implications on membrane bound enzymes. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994;74(2):66-71. [ Links ]

    146. Selvaraj N., Bobby Z., Sathiyapriya V. Effect of lipid peroxides and antioxidants on glycation of hemoglobin: an in vitro study on human erythrocytes. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;366(1-2):190-195. [ Links ]

    147. Shastri D., Kumar M., Kumar A. Modulation of lead toxicity by Spirulina fusiformis. Phytother Res. 1999;13(3):258-260. [ Links ]

    148. Singh B., Dhawan D., Nehru B., Garg M.L., Mangal P.C., Chand B., Trehan P.N. Impact of lead pollution on the status of other trace metals in blood and alterations in hepatic functions. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994,40(1):21-29. [ Links ]

    149. Sivaprasad R., Nagaraj M., Varalakshmi P. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76(8):437-441. [ Links ]

    150. Sivaprasad R., Nagaraj M., Varalakshmi P. Combined efficacies of lipoic acid and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on lead- induced erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003;22(4):183-192. [ Links ]

    151. Sivaprasad R., Nagaraj M., Varalakshmi P. Combined efficacies of lipoic acid and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15(1):18-23. [ Links ]

    152. Soares F., Farina M., Santos F.W., Souza D., Rocha J.B., Nogueira C. W. Interaction between metals and chelating agents affects glutamate binding on brain synaptic membranes. Neurochem Res. 2003;28(12):1859-1865. [ Links ]

    153. Soltaninejad K., Kebriaeezadeh A., Minaiee B., Ostad S.N., Hosseini R., Azizi E., Abdollahi M. Biochemical and ultrastructural evidences for toxicity of lead through free radicals in rat brain. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003;22(8):417-23. [ Links ]

    154. Somashekaraiah B.V, Venkaiah B., Prasad A.R. Biochemical diagnosis of occupational exposure to lead toxicity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990;44(2):268-275. [ Links ]

    155. Souza A.M, Tavares C.F.F. Chumbo e anemia. Medicina (Ribeirão Preto). 2009;42(3):337-340. [ Links ]

    156. Stadtman E.R., Levine R.L. Protein oxidation. Ann N. Y. Acad Sci. 2000; 899:191-208. [ Links ]

    157. Tandon S.K., Chatterjee M., Bhargava A., Shukla V., Bihari V. Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners. Sci Total Environ. 2001;281(1-3):177-182. [ Links ]

    158. Tandon S.K., Flora S.J., Singh S. Influence of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) on lead intoxication in rats. Ind Health. 1987;25(2):93-96. [ Links ]

    159. Tandon S.K., Singh S., Flora S.J. Influence of methionine-zinc supplementation during chelation of lead in rats. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1994;8(2):75-78. [ Links ]

    160. Tandon S.K., Singh S., Prasad S., Srivastava S., Siddiqui M.K. Reversal of lead-induced oxidative stress by chelating agent, antioxidant, or their combination in the rat. Environ Res. 2002;90(1):61-66. [ Links ]

    161. Trachootham D., Lu W., Orasawara M.A., Nilsa R.D., Huang P. Redox reagulation of cell survival. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10(8):1343-1374. [ Links ]

    162. Turrens J.F. Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species. J Physiol. 2003;552(Pt2):335-344. [ Links ]

    163. Vij A.G., Satija N.K., Flora S.J. Lead induced disorders in hematopoietic and drug metabolizing enzyme system and their protection by arcorbic acid supplementation. Biomed Environ Sci. 1998;11(1):7-14. [ Links ]

    164. Wang C., Liang J., Zhang C., Bi Y., Shi X., Shi Q. Effect of ascorbic acid and thiamine supplementation at different concentrations on lead toxicity in liver. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51(6):563-569. [ Links ]

    165. Wang H.L., Chen X.T., Yang B., Ma F.L., Wang S., Tang M.L., Hao M.G., Ruan D.Y. Case-control study of lead levels and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children. Environ Health Perspect. 2008a;116(10):1401-1406. [ Links ]

    166. Wang H. L., Chen X. T., Yin S. T., Liu J., Tang M. L., Wu C. Y., Ruan D. Y. Opposite effects of alpha-lipoic acid on antioxidation and long-term potentiation in control and chronically lead-exposed rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008b; 378(3):303-310. [ Links ]

    167. Wang J., Wu J., Zhang Z. Oxidative stress in mouse brain exposed to lead. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50(4):405-409. [ Links ]

    168. Wang Q., Ye L. X., Zhao H. H., Chen J. W., Zhou Y. K. Benchmark dose approach for lowlevel lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409(10):1806-1810. [ Links ]

    169. Wang Q., Zhao H. H., Chen J. W., Hao Q. L., Gu K. D., Zhu Y. X., Zhou Y. K., Ye L. X. delta- Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid concentration and zinc protoporphyrin level among people with low level of lead exposure. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213(1):52-58. [ Links ]

    170. West W.L., Knight E.M., Edwards C.H., Manning M., Spurlock B., James H., Johnson A.A., Oyemade U.J., Cole O.J., Westney O.E., Laryea H., Jones S., Westney L.S. Maternal low level lead and pregnancy outcomes. J Nutr. 1994;124(6Suppl):981S-986S. [ Links ]

    171. Wilhelm-Filho D., Avila S. Jr., Possamai F. P., Parisotto E. B., Moratelli A. M., Garlet T. R., Inácio D. B., Torres M. A., Colepicolo P., Dal-Pizzol F. Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjets exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19(7):1193-1200. [ Links ]

    172. Witte A.B., Anestal K., Jerremalm E., Ehrsson H., Arnér E.S. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase but not of glutathione reductase by the major classes of alkylating and platinum-containing anticancer compounds. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39(5):696-703. [ Links ]

    173. Xia Y., Dawson V.L., Dawson T.M., Snyder S.H., Zweier J.L. Nitric oxide synthase generates superoxide and nitric oxide in argininedepleted cells leading to peroxynitrite-mediated cellular injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93(13):6770-6774. [ Links ]

    174. Xia Y., Zweier J.L. Superoxide and peroxynitrite generation from inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94(13):6954-6958. [ Links ]

    175. Xu J., Lian L., Wu C., Wang X., Fu W., Xu L. Lead induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alteration of p53, Bax and Bcl- 2 expressions in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1488-1494. [ Links ]

    176. Yan H., Harding J.J. Glycation-induced inactivation and loss of antigenicity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Biochem J. 1997;328(Pt2):599-605. [ Links ]

    177. Yiin S.J., Lin T.H. Lead-catalyzed peroxidation of essential unsaturated fatty acid. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1995;50(2):167-172. [ Links ]

    178. Yla-Herttuala S. Oxidized LDL and atherogenesis. Ann N. Y. Acad Sci. 1999;874:134-137. [ Links ]

    179. Yu F., Liao Y., Jin Y., Zhao Y., Ren Y., Lu C., Li G., Li Y., Yang J. Effects of in utero meso-2,3- dimercaptosuccinic acid with calcium and ascorbic acid n lead-induced fetal development. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82(7):453-459. [ Links ]

    180. Yuan X., Tang C. The accumulation effect of lead on DNA damage in mice blood cells of three generations and the protection of selenium. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2001;36(4):501-508. [ Links ]

    181. Zimmerman B.J., Granger D.N. Mechanisms of reperfusion injury. Am J Med Sci. 1994;307(4):284-292. [ Links ]