Both spanish or english texts are considered for publication. Manuscripts should be printed double-spaced on one side of nonglossy letter paper with 3 cm (or 1 in.) margin on all sides, the pages numbered and with line numbering. Electronic submissions are accepted as Word files (DOC or RTF files), tables as Excel files (XLS files), figures as JPG files (only for the reviewers) and as 300 dpi TIF files (both RAR and ZIP format accepted) for publication.
There should be only one space between words. Paragraph marks should be restricted to the end of each paragraph. Avoid “tab” marks.
Text (titles included) should be aligned on the left without indentation or justification of the right-hand margin.
From volume 44 on, Darwiniana follows “The Chicago Manual of Style” (2003), 15th edition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, for english texts; and X. Fuentes Arderiu, F. Antoja Ribó & M. J. Castiñeiras Lacambra, “Manual de Estilo para la Redacción de Textos Científicos y Profesionales”, <http://www.ifcc.org/ria/docs/estilo2.pdf>, [Accessed: November 24, 2005], and “Manual de estilo de la lengua española” (2000) by J. Martínez de Souza, Gijón, Ediciones Trea, for spanish texts.
Manuscripts are structured as follows: 1) title and authors; 2) resumen and abstract; 3) text; 4) bibliography; 5) tables; 6) illustrations. The main stylistic norms for each part are briefly described below. For more information, please contact the Editorial Board, or a recent issue of Darwiniana may be used as a model.
Title and authors
- The first page of the manuscript contains the following information: 1) title; 2) authors; 3) authors’ institutional address; 4) P.O. Box and e-mail of the author for correspondence; and 5) running title.
- Manuscript’s title is written with capitals without a full stop or period (genera, species and infraspecifics names italicized). Generic and specific names of vascular plants go with the corresponding family name (subfamily and tribe names according to each case) between brackets. Those of nonvascular plants go with the division name between brackets. Avoid the use of authority for scientific names in the title.
- Author names are written lowercase (except first letter) along the same line in the following order: the first or preferred name complete, the second, only the initial, and both precede the surname. Use “&” to connect the last author with the previous ones.
- Authors’ institutional address is consigned with reference marks only in the case of two or more authors with different addresses. The e-mail address of the author for correspondence follows the institutional address after a semicolon.
- The running title must not be longer than one line including author names.
Abstract and “Resumen”
- The second page of the manuscript contains in separated paragraphs: 1) Spanish abstract (resumen); 2) Spanish keywords (palabras clave); 3) English abstract; 4) English keywords. Keywords are arranged in alphabetical order.
- A one-paragraph abstract and "resumen" (spanish abstract) precede the text. The abstract and "resumen" should be concise and include authors, year, title, brief statements about the paper’s intent, materials and methods, main results and conclusions.
- No more than 8 keywords are recommended. They usually mark the subject, studied taxa (generic or higher rank), and geographic area. Scientific names of species are not accepted as keywords.
- The contents of both abstract and “resumen” must be identical. The same requirement applies to the keywords and “palabras claves”.
- The following chapters are recommended: INTRODUCTION, MATERIAL AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, BIBLIOGRAPHY. This scheme can be different, for instance, in taxonomic papers.
- Up to two levels of subtitles are allowed within every chapter. The subtitle of the first level is aligned on the left, with no full stop, and the paragraph begins in a new line. The subtitle of the second level is aligned on the left, with a stop separating the subtitle from text in the same line.
- The chapter “Material and Methods” of non taxonomic papers should have detailed information of the vouchers used as reference material for the studied taxa. (See style in examined material of taxonomic treatments).
- Only names of genera, species and infraspecific categories are italicized; latin abreviations, such as sp. nov., comb. nov., var., sens. lat., non, ex, or names of subgenera and sections are not italicized.
- Correct accents, umlauts, and other diacritical marks should be included. Sentences do not begin with abbreviations.
- Words or sentences used from their original language, if different from that of the text, are written between quotation marks following their own spelling rules, for example: “Österreich”, “Geokarpie”, “in vitro”. (Geographic names do not need quotation marks).
- Arabic numbers are recommended, except those from 1 to 9. Numbers at the beginning of a sentence should be fully spelled.
- Units of measure and cardinal points have no full stop (period) except in. (inches), for example: cm, g, ml, µm, or N, S, NE, SW.
- There is one space after each punctuation mark and also between numbers and its unit of measure. For instance: A. L. Cabrera but not A.L. Cabrera (except in the nomenclatural treatment), 8 mm but not 8mm; BA, LP, SI, and not BA,LP,SI.
- The format to describe the length and width of a structure is 8-25 x 0.2-0.3 cm (with the same unit of measure), and not 8-25 cm x 2-3 mm. The abbreviations lat., diam. (diám. In Spanish) are used. To indicate the length of a structure, the word length is not necessary “pedicels of 3 mm” and not “pedicels of 3 mm length”; but the expression “3 cm wide” is correct.
- Acronyms should be capitalized with no full stop, for example: FAA (formol, alcohol, acetic acid) and explained the first time they appear in the text.
- Bibliographic references in the text are as follows: (Gamundí, 1960), (Gamundí, 1960: 135), according to Gamundí (1960), Jones & Smith (1970) or Naranjo et al. (1982) when authors are more than three.
- Every table and figure must be cited in the text with the following style: (Table 2), (Fig. 3C), (Fig. 2C-E, H), (Figs. ·3B and 4C-G). In the text of the nomenclatural treatment they are indicated without brackets
- Try to avoid footnotes in the text. When necessary, use arabic numbers for footnotes in the text and small letters for footnotes in tables.
Text of taxonomic treatments
- New taxa must be illustrated, particularly their diagnostic characters. A discussion about their relationships with closest taxa, a key and a map with their geographical distribution are also recommended.
- Taxon authorities should be abbreviated according to Authors of Plant Names (Brummit & Powell, 1992) with the initial letter capitalized. They are omitted from both title and captions. They are cited only once, when scientific names appear in the text for the first time or, if it is not that case, in the material listed in Material and Methods.
- Books should be abbreviated according to Taxonomic Literature, edition 2, with the initial letter capitalized.
- Herbaria should be abbreviated according to Holmgren et al. (1990), Index Herbariorum, edition 8.
- Vernacular plant names should be written as proper nouns, between quotation marks and separated by commas.
- Taxon binomial authors formally cited in the text are fully spelled, for example: Linnaeus instead of L., Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth instead of H.B.K.
- Illustrations should be cited for known taxa contained in the treatment, especially when the paper does not include any figure of these taxa.
- When relevant, nomina nuda, misapplied names and superfluous names are included in the discussion following the description (under “Observation” subtitle of the corresponding species), but are not part of the formal synonymy.
- Genera and plant scientific names names are numbered and arranged alphabetically, within every family and genus. Taxa below the species rank are identified with small letters.
- Taxonomic information of scientific names of species is arranged in one paragraph per name, according to the following example and punctuation marks:
Panicum hirticaule J. Presl, Reliq. haenk. 1: 308. 1830. P. polygamun Sw. var. hirticaule (J. Presl) E. Fourn. Mexic. pl. 2: 28.1886. P. capillare L. var. hirticaule (J. Presl) Gould, Madroño 10: 94. 1949. TYPE: México. Guerrero: Acapulco, Haenke s.n. (holotype PR, not seen; isotypes MO-1837663!, US-80698 not seen). Fig. 2.
Panicum capillare L. var. miliaceum Vasey, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1: 28. 1890, hom. illeg. Panicum sonorum Beal, Grasses N. Amer. 2: 130. 1896. Panicum hirticaule J. Presl var. miliaceum (Vasey) Beetle, Phytologia 47: 381. 1981. TYPE: México. Sonora: Lerdo, 1889, Palmer 947 (holotype US-2903025; isotype SI!).
Lepidium argentinum Thell., Physis 9: 9. 1928. TYPE: Argentina. La Rioja, Chilecito, Sañugasta, 30-I-1927, L. R. Parodi 7785 (lectotype BAA! here designated).
- After taxon description, the accepted titles are as follows, in a separate paragraph and with full stop, and in the following order: References, Vernacular names, Etimology, Chromosome number, Geographical distribution and habitat, Observations (including morphological data, nomenclatural data, phenology, common uses, conservation status) and Examined material (or Representative specimens examined).
- Specimens are cited in the text (under Examined material or Representative specimens examined)
- in alphabetical order by country, province, etc, according to the example:
ARGENTINA. Córdoba. Depto. Colón:Quebrada de Río Ceballos, 20-III-1971 (fl), Subils 1197 (CORD). Corrientes. Depto. Ituzaingó: Ituzaingó, 23-IV-1935, Ibarrola s.n. (BAA).
BRASIL. Rio Grande do Sul. Alegrete, 39 km W ruta BR-290, 19-I-1973 (fl), Krapovickas et al. 22781 (BAA, CTES, SI). Santa Catarina. 17 Km NE of the S. Catarina-RGS border, BR-116, 25-V-89 (fl, fr), G. Davidse et al. 11145 (MO, SI, SP).
- If many specimens were examined, those cited in the text are limited to one collection by geographical area (department, province, state, etc). Long lists of specimens examined can be placed following the Bibliography. They are arranged alphabetically by collector, including collection number followed by the number assigned to each taxon (between brackets).
- Information on reproductive status (fl or fr) is highly recommended.
- According to each case, these chapters follow taxonomic treatments: DUBIOUS NAMES AND EXCLUDED TAXA (before ACKNOWLEDGMENTS); INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR NAMES, INDEX OF COLLECTORS (after BIBLIOGRAPHY).
- Keys should be dichotomous, left-aligned without indentations. Each dilemma should finish with a full stop. Avoid too extensive dilemmas. Keys should be checked carefully for consistency with the descriptions. The first option of dilemma 2 and following dilemmas include in brackets the previous dilemma [from where it comes from. e.g. 2(1)]. The second option of each dilemma does not include any sign or symbol (3. and not 3’.).
- The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically by author(s). Two or more papers of the same author(s) should be arranged chronologically. For instance:
Clayton, W. D. 1987. Andropogoneae, en T. R. Soderstrom, K. W. Hilu, C. S. Campbell & M. E. Barkworth (eds.), Grass Systematics and Evolution, pp. 307-309. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Johri, B. M. 1998. Embryology of Angiosperms, 2ª. edición, 2 vols. Berlin: Springer.
Pozner, R. & A. A. Cocucci. (Sine data). Floral structure, anther development and pollen dispersal of Halophytum ameghinoi (Halophytaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences; forthcoming.
Rosengurtt, B.; A. Laguardia & B. R. Arrillaga de Maffei. 1972. El carácter lípido del endosperma central en especies de gramíneas. Boletín de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad de Montevideo 124: 1-43.
Rosato, V. G. 2001. Degradación del hormigón por acción liquénica. Actas de la Reunión de la Asociación Argentina de Tecnología del Hormigón, 25-26 de octubre de 2001, Olavarría (Argentina), Tomo I: 97-103.
Rúgolo de Agrasar, Z. E. & M. E. De Paula. 1978. Agrostis, en M. N. Correa (ed.), Flora Patagónica. Colección Científica del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria 8(3): 369-394.
Schwarz, G. J. 2000. Multiwavelength analyses of classical carbon-oxygen novae. Ph.D. diss., Arizona State University.
Zimmerer, K. S. 1995. Global Economic Integration and Rural Environmental Change in the Andean Countries, the Conference on the New World Economic Order and Environments [on line]. Earthworks (Texas, USA): University of Texas. Austin. <http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/eworks.html>. [Accessed March 2004].
- Periodicals are not abbreviated.
- The bibliography of taxonomic papers does not contain those bibliographic references accompanying names of genera and species. They are included in the bibliography only when their references appear in the text.
- The Bibliography contains all references cited in the text. All entries in the Bibliography are cited in the text.
- Tables can be made with Excel, the table tool of Word 6.0/7.0 for Windows.
- Each table starts on a separate sheet and does not show vertical or horizontal lines.
- The caption is a double-spaced paragraph at the top of the table with the following style: “Table 1. Title. Additional explanations to understand the table. Abbreviations: a, ...; b, ...; c ...”
- Footnotes for tables are identified with small letters.
Photographs in composite plates should not leave any space between their edges. A white strip is digitally added later between them in the proof.
- Illustrations (drawings, diagrams, graphics, maps and photographs) are all figures. They receive consecutive numbers in order of their appearance in the text.
- In case of digital illustrations (scanned or drawn with software for graphics), please send JPG files for the review process, and 300 to 600 dpi TIF files for the final proof.
- Drawings and photographs combined in one figure are not accepted.
- Illustrations fit a 15 x 19 cm frame or, if larger, with a proportional ratio of length : width = 1.27. Small illustrations can be adjusted to a column width (7 cm). They may be shorter but keeping the column or page frame width. Enough place to include the caption within frame limits is preferred.
- Each element within a figure is identified by a capital letter placed on the lower right of each drawing or photograph. Details of each drawing or photographs are indicated by small letters or abbreviations written with small letters.
- Recommended size for letters used in the illustration (printed size) is 3 mm. Each figure includes a scale bar (µm, mm, cm, m) A uniform orientation of scales within the figure is preferred. The following style is highly recommended: or when there are two or more scales in the same figure.
- Captions are written all together in a separate sheet, as follows: Fig. 3. Lepidium pedersenii. A, plant. B, flower. C, fruit. Abbreviations: p, petals; st, stamens. Scales: A = 2 cm, B = 0.5 mm, C = 1 mm. Drawn by the author from T. Pedersen 8352 (holotype MO).
- Maps are framed by a fine border. They include at least 2 references of latitude and longitude and a scale bar (km). North is orientated towards the upper margin.
- Photographs are crisp black-and-white, with good contrast, sharp focus, and with a wide range of grey tones. Photomicrographs are preferred with clear background (whitish-greyish), except those taken with dark field and fluorescence techniques. SEM photographs are accepted with dark field, free of charges and from material properly dehydrated. TEM photographs must have good contrast and no scratches.
- Letters and scale bars should have a white background if it is necessary to facilitate their reading.
- Non-digital figures are mounted on stiff cardboard and covered with a vegetal paper. Figure number,
author(s) name(s) and paper title are written in pencil on the back side of both originals and review copies.